Heritage conservation terminology

Definition of terms from various sources

1-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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Last revision: March 2011

Glossaries  
[click] Mosaics In Situ Project - Illustrated Glossary - Definitions of terms used for the graphic documentation of in situ floor mosaics
[click] ICOMOS-ISCS: Illustrated glossary on stone deterioration patterns
[click] Petra (Jordan) Archaeological Park Weathering and Deterioration Definitions in English and Arabic (pdf 698KB)

Last revision: April 2009

1-9
Terms
Definitions
  3D Computer Modeling
  1. "3D computer modeling is software that stores XYZ coordinate points. The software connects points, creating triangular planes that can be assembled to form different shapes that represent architectural elements. Images of the actual architectural elements can be projected or draped over the surface of these triangular planes. All this can be displayed on the computer and rotated to be visualized from different view points." (From: Jose Luis Lerma in Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
A  

 

  Aboriginal cultural landscape
  1. A place valued by an Aboriginal group (or groups) because of their long and complex relationship with that land. It expresses their unity with the natural and spiritual environment. It embodies their traditional knowledge of spirits, places, land uses, and ecology. Material remains of the association may be prominent, but will often be minimal or absent. (In Parks Canada, An Approach to Aboriginal Cultural Landscapes, 2006).
  Accuracy
  1. The degree to which the results of heritage recording conforms to the metric value of an object. Accuracy relates to the topographic quality of the graphic record, the scale and the precision of the recording technique used. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Adapt (verb)
  1. To adjust to a specified use or situation. (Webster's II Dictionary, 1988).
  Adaptation
  1. Adaptation means modifying a place to suit the existing use or a proposed use. (Australia Burra Charter).
  Adaptive reuse
  1. Implies the recycling of an older structure often for a new function. Extensive restoration or rehabilitation of both the interior and exterior is usually involved. (In The Heritage Canada Foundation - Preservation Strategy No.3, 1983).
  2. Using an old building for a new purpose or function. Sometimes involves extensive alteration to both the exterior and interior. (In Heritage BC - http://www.heritagebc.ca/resources/guides-tips-1/terms-definitions)
  3. The conversion of outmoded or unused structures, such as buildings of historic value, and objects, such as software, to new uses or application in new contexts. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  Add (verb)
  1. To extend by means of new construction, which may or may not require the use of additional land, or by enclosing and/or finishing an existing structure. (Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing, Canada, 1982).
  Aerial photography
  1. The various techniques of taking photographs of natural or cultural features from the air, using balloons, airplanes, satellites, and other sources, in order to study the features in their entirety from a top-down (bird's eye) view. From: Archaeological Institute of America
  2. An efficient and effective means of quickly documenting the condition of a large site or a number of sites. Aerial photographs cover many relevant matters and, if sufficiently detailed, can serve as a substitute for conventional mapping and monitoring purposes. There are two general sources of aerial photography: archival research and commissioning flights. Archival research is a cost-effective means of acquiring images of a site, as these images were taken for other reasons, such as road engineering or national topographic mapping programs. Flights may be commissioned for obtaining aerial images, which can be vertical (straight down) or oblique (at an angle). Professional companies usually take vertical images by using expensive, extra-large-format film or digital cameras mounted in the belly of medium-size airplanes. (In “Inspecting Sites,” by Kevin L. Jones).
  3. Refers to the activity of taking photographs from aircraft. The term may also be used to refer to any photography from the air, including photographs obtained by cameras mounted on aircraft, rockets, or Earth-orbiting satellites and other spacecraft. The purpose of photography from airborne or spaceborne vehicles is generally to provide information on ground features for military and other reconnaissance, or to record the dimensional disposition of such features for surveying or mapmaking. To refer specifically only to photography taken from beyond the Earth's atmosphere, use "space photography"; for photography of celestial phenomena, use "astronomical photography." When emphasis is on the view achieved by photographing from aircraft or other high locations, use "aerial views." (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  Aesthetic value
  1. Aspects of sensory perception for which criteria can be stated. These criteria may include consideration of form, scale, color, texture and material of the fabric or landscape, the smells and sounds associated with the place and its use. (In: Conservation Management Planning: Putting Theory into Practice. The Case of Joya de Cerén, El Salvator - Getty Conservation Institute 2009).
  Analysis
  1. The interpretation of research and investigation results to improve understanding of cultural heritage places.(Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  2. Examining an object, action, material, or concept in detail by separating it into its fundamental elements or component parts. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  Alter (verb)
  1. To cause to become different in some (minor) way. (Webster's II Dictionary, 1988).
  2. To rearrange the layout of interior space to accommodate changing needs. (Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing, Canada, 1982).
  Applied metrology
  1. Applied or industrial metrology, concerns the application of measurement science to manufacturing and other processes and use in society, ensuring the suitability of measurement instruments, their calibration and quality control of measurements. " From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metrology
  Archaeological excavations
  1. 1. For the purpose of the present Recommendation, by archaeological excavations is meant any research aimed at the discovery of objects of archaeological character, whether such research involves digging of the ground or systematic exploration of its surface or is carried out on the bed or in the sub-soil of inland or territorial waters of a Member State. (In UNESCO's Recommendation on International Principles Applicable to Archaeological Excavations 5 December 1956)
  Archaeological heritage
  1. The "archaeological heritage" is that part of the material heritage in respect of which archaeological methods provide primary information. It comprises all vestiges of human existence and consists of places relating to all manifestations of human activity, abandoned structures, and remains of all kinds (including subterranean and underwater sites), together with all the portable cultural material associated with them. (ICOMOS Charter for the protection and management of the archaeological heritage (1990)).
  Archaeological site
  1. Any place in New Zealand, including shipwrecks, which was associated with human activity more than 100 years ago and which, through investigation by archaeological techniques, may provide scientific, cultural or historical evidence as to the exploration occupation, settlement or development of New Zealand (Historic Places Act 1993). Any specific locality at which there is physical evidence for human occupation in the past that is, or may be able to be, investigated by archaeological techniques (New Zealand Archaeological Association Site Recording Scheme). (New Zealand Dept. of Conservation 1993)
  2. Locations where human activities once took place and some form of material evidence has been left behind, particularly sites where evidence of past activity is being or has been investigated using the discipline of archaeology. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  Architectural conservation
  1. Refers to the physical intervention in a building to counteract deterioration or to ensure its structural stability. Treatments often used in this process include the cleaning of wallpaper, reattachment of loose plaster, masonry repointing and consolidation of an existing foundation. (In The Heritage Canada Foundation - Preservation Strategy No.3, 1983).
  2. The physical intervention in a building to counteract deterioration or to ensure its structural stability. Some typical treatments include the cleaning of wallpaper, reattachment of loose plaster, masonry repointing, and consolidation of an existing foundation. (In Heritage BC - http://www.heritagebc.ca/resources/guides-tips-1/terms-definitions)
  Architectural integrity
  1. To be eligible for the NRHP under Criterion C, a property must retain most of the physical features that constitute the property’s architectural influence or style, or technique. This includes original materials, design, and workmanship. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Architectural photographs
  1. Photos that illustrate primarily the architectural character / features / details of a structure. They generally represent ¾ views of the main elevation(s), taken with a 'perspective correction lens' to remove vertical perspectives from the image. Then, more detailed photos are taken to show opening details such as windows / doors / passageways. They could / should include all architectural elements described in a building's 'heritage character statement' (e.g. cornice details / stone work / brick patterns / etc). (By Robin Letellier, Penn University courses handout 2006 )
  As-built record
  1. Consists in updating conservation design drawings and related reports to include the modifications that were made to them during the conservation activity. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  As-found record
  1. Generally a detailed record of the 'as-found' nature and condition of a cultural heritage place, i.e. before any planned change is implemented. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Assessment
  1. The forumulation of general results through the correlation and interpretation of existing and newly collected information.(Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Associations
  1. Associations mean the special connections that exist between people and a place. (Australia Burra Charter).
  Authenticity
  1. The quality of being genuine or original, being actually what is claimed rather than imitative. (Getty Conservation Institute Glossary for Iraq Course 2004).
  2. The quality of being genuine or original. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  3. Authenticity
    79. Properties nominated under criteria (i) to (vi) must meet the conditions of authenticity. Annex 4 which includes the Nara Document on Authenticity, provides a practical basis for examining the authenticity of such properties and is summarized below.
    80. The ability to understand the value attributed to the heritage depends on the degree to which information sources about this value may be understood as credible or truthful. Knowledge and understanding of these sources of information, in relation to original and subsequent characteristics of the cultural heritage, and their meaning, are the requisite bases for assessing all aspects of authenticity.
    81. Judgments about value attributed to cultural heritage, as well as the credibility of related information sources, may differ from culture to culture, and even within the same culture. The respect due to all cultures requires that cultural heritage must be considered and judged primarily within the cultural contexts to which it belongs.
    82. Depending on the type of cultural heritage, and its cultural context, properties may be understood to meet the conditions of authenticity if their cultural values (as recognized in the
    Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention 21 nomination criteria proposed) are truthfully and credibly expressed through a variety of attributes including:
    o form and design;
    o materials and substance;
    o use and function;
    o traditions, techniques and management systems;
    o location and setting;
    o language, and other forms of intangible heritage;
    o spirit and feeling; and
    o other internal and external factors.
    83. Attributes such as spirit and feeling do not lend themselves easily to practical applications of the conditions of authenticity, but nevertheless are important indicators of character and sense of place, for example, in communities maintaining tradition and cultural continuity.
    84. The use of all these sources permits elaboration of the specific artistic, historic, social, and scientific dimensions of the cultural heritage being examined. "Information sources" are defined as all physical, written, oral, and figurative sources, which make it possible to know the nature,
    specificities, meaning, and history of the cultural heritage.
    85. When the conditions of authenticity are considered in preparing a nomination for a property, the State Party should first identify all of the applicable significant attributes of authenticity. The statement of authenticity should assess the degree to which authenticity is present in, or expressed by, each of these significant attributes.
    86. In relation to authenticity, the reconstruction of archaeological remains or historic buildings or districts is justifiable only in exceptional circumstances. Reconstruction is acceptable only on the basis of complete and detailed documentation and to no extent on conjecture.
    (In UNESCO Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention - WHC. 08/01 January 2008 - http://whc.unesco.org/archive/opguide08-en.pdf)
  Automated monitoring systems
  1. These systems contain a large number of different sensors and devices that collect various data measurements. They include, but are not limited to, inclinometers to measure the degree of inclination; levelometers to measure differential settlement; weather stations to measure wind speed and direction as well as ambient temperature; and strain gauges to measure crack propagation. Usually these devices are connected to computers to provide continuous data to engineers. (In “Monitoring Movement,” by Giorgio Croci)
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  Base map
  1. (or Base Drawing) Scaled graphic (or photographic) record of the physical configuration of the heritage asset, used by conservation professionals to graphically record (or map) investigation and treatment related data. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Biodiversity, or biological diversity
  1. Refers to the variety of all life forms, and includes the Earth's different plants, animals and micro - organisms, their genes and the ecosystems of which they are a part. (In UNESCO World Heritage in Young Hands, 2002)
  Biological diversity
  1. The composition and abundance of species and communities in an ecosystem. (Getty Conservation Institute Glossary for Iraq Course 2004).
  Built environment
  1. Means the collection of man-made structures and surfaces in the place (In Australia Centennial Parklands Conservation Management Plan 2003).
  Built structure
  1. Any building or structure, including roads, bridges, gun emplacements, walls, mines, etc. over 30 years old. (New Zealand Historic Places Act 1993).
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  CAD
  1. (Computer-Aided Design and Drafting) A software by which measurements, data, and images from multiple tools and methods can be combined. CAD is flexible enough to allow the user to produce quick, basic sketches as well as drawings of great precision and detail. Serving as a common platform for printing and sharing data among specialists, CAD images can be imported and data added manually or input directly from survey instruments. Data can be displayed in different
    ways, including two-dimensional orthographic projections or three-dimensional isometric, or perspective, views. Information can be divided using multiple layers, or views, which can then be recombined in various ways. (In “Building Survey,” by Christian Ouimet)
  Character-defining element or feature
  1. The materials, forms, location, spacial configurations, uses and cultural associations or meanings that contribute to the heritage value of a historic place, and which must be retained in order to preserve its heritage value. (In Parks Canada Standards and Guidelines for the Conservation of Historic Places in Canada - http://www.pc.gc.ca/docs/pc/guide/nldclpc-sgchpc/sec1/page1b_e.asp#tphp).
  2. A prominent or distinctive aspect, quality, or characteristic of a cultural resource that contributes significantly to its physical character. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Collections care specialist
  1. An individual who is trained and experienced in specific preventive care activities and who works in conjunction with or under the supervision of a conservator. (In AIC Definitions of conservation terminology - http://aic.stanford.edu/geninfo/defin.html)
  Commemoration
  1. To recognize the heritage value or character of a building, site or other resource. Often involves the placing of a plaque or other marker. Commemoration does not means protection or legal restriction of any kind. (In Heritage BC - http://www.heritagebc.ca/resources/guides-tips-1/terms-definitions)
  2. Events, often but not always ceremonious or celebratory in nature, serving to call someone or something to remembrance or to honor people or past events. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  Commercial use
  1. Commercial use will include any use, in the business of the owner or of another person, that contributes directly or indirectly to the purposes specified in the articles of incorporation of the owner. This includes, where appropriate, the use of historic buildings as residential rental properties or bed and breakfast establishments, if owned by a taxable Canadian corporation. (In Parks Canada Historic Places Initiative 2007)
  Compatible, compatible use
  1. Compatible use means a use that respects the cultural significance of a place. Such a use involves no, or minimal, impact on cultural significance. (Australia Burra Charter).
  2. Means a use that involves no change to the significant fabric or attributes, changes, which are substantially reversible, or changes which require minimal impact. (In Australia Centennial Parklands Conservation Management Plan 2003)
  3. For historic properties, replacement or new features that are sensitive to the properties’ historic character and matches the original feature in items such as material, size, shape, design, scale, color and craftsmanship. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Complete record
  1. The correlation and integration of the heritage record and the scientific record which should permit to gather a full understanding of all relevant issues pertaining to a cultural heritage place. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Computer modeling
  1. A software that processes XYZ coordinate points and builds up meshes that can be formed into
    different shapes to represent building or site elements. Images of the actual physical elements are then “draped,” or projected, over the surface of these meshes. The finished images can be displayed and rotated on the computer to be viewed from different perspectives. (In “Virtual Solutions,” by José Luis Lerma and Carmen Pérez)
  Condition assessment
  1. A record of the state of the critical aspects of the place at a given time. This should be suitable for:
    - developing options for future action;
    - and, as a record against which to judge change.
    (In: Conservation Management Planning: Putting Theory into Practice. The Case of Joya de Cerén, El Salvator - Getty Conservation Institute 2009).

  Condition photographs
  1. These photos are meant to illustrate problems that are described in condition assessments of masonry walls / structures / heritage places / etc. This type of recording is the most cost-effective way to communicate / understand problem statements, and to illustrate condition. (By Robin Letellier in Penn University courses handout 2006).
  Conservation
  1. Conservation means all the processes of looking after a place so as to retain its cultural significance. (Australia Burra Charter).
  2. All efforts designed to understand cultural heritage, know its history and meaning, ensure its material safeguard and, as required, its presentation, restoration and enhancement. (Cultural heritage is understood to include monuments, groups of buildings and sites of cultural value as defined in article one of the World Heritage Convention). (Nara Conference on Authenticity in Relation to the World Heritage Convention, held at Nara, Japan, from 1-6 November 1994)
  3. Concerned with the transmission of cultural heritage, with its significant values intact and accessible to the greatest degree possible.(Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  4. The profession devoted to the preservation of cultural property for the future. Conservation activities include examination, documentation, treatment, and preventive care, supported by research and education. (In AIC Definitions of conservation terminology - http://aic.stanford.edu/geninfo/defin.html)
  5. All activities involved in the protection and retention of heritage resources. Includes the study, protection, development, administration, maintenance and interpretation of heritage resources, whether they are objects, buildings or structures, or environments. Often used interchangeably with preservation ("heritage conservation" in Canada is "historic preservation" in the U.S.). It is also used to refer to a highly specialized field of activity that normally deals with the protection of objects in museum collections: a CONSERVATOR is the person who is responsible for the care and treatment of objects. (In Heritage BC - http://www.heritagebc.ca/resources/guides-tips-1/terms-definitions)
  6. All actions or processes that are aimed at safeguarding the character-defining elements of a cultural resource so as to retain its heritage value and extend its physical life. This may involve "Preservation", "Rehabilitation", "Restoration", or a combination of these actions or processes. Reconstruction or reconstitution of a disappeared cultural resource is not considered conservation (In Parks Canada Standards and Guidelines for the Conservation of Historic Places in Canada - http://www.pc.gc.ca/docs/pc/guide/nldclpc-sgchpc/sec1/page1b_e.asp#tphp)
  7. All measures and actions aimed at safeguarding tangible cultural heritage while ensuring its accessibility to present and future generations. Conservation embraces preventive conservation, remedial conservation and restoration. All measures and actions should respect the significance and the physical properties of the cultural heritage item. (In ICOM-CC, 2008)
  8. Refers to the discipline involving treatment, preventive care, and research directed toward the long-term safekeeping of cultural and natural heritage. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  9. Means all the processes of looking after a place so as to retain its Natural, Indigenous and Cultural significance. It includes protection, maintenance and monitoring. According to circumstance it may involve preservation, restoration, reconstruction, reinstatement or adaptation and will be commonly a combination of more than one of these. For Indigenous communities, it can include conserving relationships between people and place that embrace spiritual as well as historical values, and protecting Aboriginal Sites in order to protect their significance to people. (In Australia Centennial Parklands Conservation Management Plan 2003)
  10. All actions aimed at the safeguarding of cultural property for the future. The purpose of conservation is to study, record, retain and restore the culturally significant qualities of the cultural property as embodied in its physical and chemical nature, with the least po ssible intervention. Con servation includes the follow ing: examination, docume ntation, preventive conservation, reservation, treatment, restoration and reconstruction. (In "Code of Ethics" - Canadian Association for Conservation of Cultural Property and the Canadian Association of Professional Conservators, 2000)
  11. Conservation implies keeping in safety or preserving the existing state of a heritage resource from destruction or change, i.e., the action taken to prevent decay and to prolong life (Feilden, 1982: 3). Another definition of conservation is broader. This is the Australia Burra Charter definition which is "all the processes of looking after a place so as to retain its cultural significance" (Article 1.4). The general concept of conservation implies various types of treatments aimed at safeguarding buildings, sites or historic towns; these include management, maintenance,repair, consolidation, reinforcement. Preventive Conservation consists of indirect action to retard deterioration and prevent damage by creating optimal conservation conditions as far as is compatible with its social use. (In: Conservation Management Planning: Putting Theory into Practice. The Case of Joya de Cerén, El Salvator – Getty Conservation Institute 2009)


  Conservation administrator
  1. A professional with substantial knowledge of conservation who is responsible for the administrative aspects and implementation of conservation activities in accordance with an ethical code such as the AIC Code of Ethics and Guidelines for Practice. (In AIC Definitions of conservation terminology - http://aic.stanford.edu/geninfo/defin.html)
  Conservation educator
  1. A professional with substantial knowledge and experience in the theory and techniques of conservation whose primary occupation is to teach the principles, methodology, and/or technical aspects of the profession in accordance with an ethical code such as the AIC Code of Ethics and Guidelines for Practice. (In AIC Definitions of conservation terminology - http://aic.stanford.edu/geninfo/defin.html)
  Conservation plan
  1. This documents the sequence of steps undertaken in the conservation process. It sets out what is significant in a place, and, consequently, what policies are appropriate to enable the significance to be retained in its future use and development. Consultation is a process of discussion between those proposing a course of action and those likely to be affected by those actions. Documentation is the written, visual, audio and electronic information about a place. (In: Conservation Management Planning: Putting Theory into Practice. The Case of Joya de Cerén, El Salvator - Getty Conservation Institute 2009).
  Conservation process
  1. The informed decision-making process, which ensures that conservation at all levels, will respect the values and significance of the cultural heritage place.(Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Conservation professional
  1. Those who, whatever their profession, trade or discipline of origin (i.e. art historians, architects, archaeologists, conservators, planners, etc.), engage in the practice of conservation and are committed to the application of the highest principles and standards of the field in their work. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  2. Conservation professional refers to any person who has the education, knowledge, ability and experience to formulate and carry out conservation activities in accordance with an ethical code such as this Code of Ethics and Guidance for Practice. The term, therefore, includes practising conservators (who are normally designated according to areas of specialization , e.g. paintings conservator, textile c onservator, architectural conservator) as well as conservation scientists, conservation technicians, conservation educators, conservation managers and conservation consultants. (In "Code of Ethics" - Canadian Association for Conservation of Cultural Property and the Canadian Association of Professional Conservators, 2000)
  Conservation scientist
  1. A professional scientist whose primary focus is the application of specialized knowledge and skills to support the activities of conservation in accordance with an ethical code such as the AIC Code of Ethics and Guidelines for Practice. (In AIC Definitions of conservation terminology - http://aic.stanford.edu/geninfo/defin.html)
  2. Scientists who apply their knowledge to problems of conservation. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  Conservation technician
  1. An individual who is trained and experienced in specific conservation treatment activities and who works in conjunction with or under the supervision of a conservator. A conservation technician may also be trained and experienced in specific preventive care activities. (In AIC Definitions of conservation terminology - http://aic.stanford.edu/geninfo/defin.html)
  Conservator
  1. (American Institute for Conservation) A professional whose primary occupation is the practice of conservation and who, through specialized education, knowledge, training, and experience, formulates and implements all the activities of conservation in accordance with an ethical code such as the AIC Code of Ethics and Guidelines for Practice.
  2. People responsible for treatment, preventive care, and research directed toward the long-term safekeeping of cultural and natural heritage. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  Conserve (verb)
  1. See “Conservation” above
  2. To implement saving methods to prevent the wasteful use of a built resource, using planned management. (Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing, Canada)
  3. The term conservation refers in most cases nowadays to the reduction of the energy consumed by a building. The activities leading to this desired objective are usually called retrofitting or thermofitting, both are defined later. The term may also be used in the heritage context or as a synonym for rehabilitation, restoration, or repair in describing the activities required to effect the conservation. In addition, the Venice Charter specifies that the conservation of a building must serve some socially useful purpose, but that this should not cause changes to the layout or decoration of the building; nor should new construction, demolition, or modifications be allowed to alter the existing relation of mass and colour (ICOMOS). (National Research Council of Canada)
  Consolidation
  1. A treatment used to strengthen deteriorated materials to ensure their structural integrity. Traditional skills and materials are preferred. The intervention should be reversible. REPOINTING is an example of a reversible consolidation treatment. An example of a non-reversible consolidation process would be the strengthening of a timber by inserting metal rods in a bed of epoxy. (In Heritage BC - http://www.heritagebc.ca/resources/guides-tips-1/terms-definitions)
  2. Stabilizing degraded or weakened areas by introducing or attaching materials capable of holding them together. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  Continued use
  1. The continued use of a place may not be consciously motivated by a desire to conserve cultural significance but may actually do this. Activities which fit this category would include making new deposits at living sites, and rearranging, or adding to stone arrangements, etc. (In: Conservation Management Planning: Putting Theory into Practice. The Case of Joya de Cerén, El Salvator - Getty Conservation Institute 2009).
  Contributing property, element or resource
  1. A Contributing Property is defined as an immovable asset such as a building or a landscape, that is part of a larger historic place (such as a district) and that contributes to the heritage value of the larger historic place. (In Parks Canada Historic Places Initiative 2007)
  2. A building, site, structure, or object that adds to the historical associations, historic architectural qualities, or archaeological values for which a property is significant. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Convert (verb)
  1. (Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing, Canada, 1982) To change the number of dwelling units within a residential or mixed-use structure, to create a number of new dwelling units within a non-residential or mixed-use structure.
  2. (Housing and Urban Development Association of Canada, 1982) To change the use of a building.
  Criteria (plural), criterion (singular)
  1. Are used to select sites of outstanding universal value for inclusion on the World Heritage List. (In UNESCO World Heritage in Young Hands, 2002)
  Cultural activities, goods and services
  1. “Cultural activities, goods and services” refers to those activities, goods and services, which at the time they are considered as a specific attribute, use or purpose, embody or convey cultural expressions, irrespective of the commercial value they may have. Cultural activities may be an end in themselves, or they may contribute to the production of cultural goods and services. (in UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions 2005)
  Cultural content
  1. “Cultural content” refers to the symbolic meaning, artistic dimension and cultural values that originate from or express cultural identities. (in UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions 2005)
  Cultural diversity
  1. “Cultural diversity” refers to the manifold ways in which the cultures of groups and societies find expression. These expressions are passed on within and among groups and societies.

    Cultural diversity is made manifest not only through the varied ways in which the cultural heritage of humanity is expressed, augmented and transmitted through the variety of cultural expressions, but also through diverse modes of artistic creation, production, dissemination, distribution and enjoyment, whatever the means and technologies used. (in UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions 2005)

  2. Article 1 – Cultural diversity: the common heritage of humanity

    Culture takes diverse forms across time and space. This diversity is embodied in the uniqueness and plurality of the identities of the groups and societies making up humankind. As a source of exchange, innovation and creativity, cultural diversity is as necessary for humankind as biodiversity is for nature. In this sense, it is the common heritage of humanity and should be recognized and affirmed for the benefit of present and future generations.
    (In UNESCO's UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity 2 November 2001)

  Cultural expressions
  1. “Cultural expressions” are those expressions that result from the creativity of individuals, groups and societies, and that have cultural content. (in Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions 2005)
  Cultural heritage
  1. Article 1

    For the purposes of this Convention, the following shall be considered as `cultural heritage':

    monuments : architectural works, works of monumental sculpture and painting, elements or structures of an archaeological nature, inscriptions, cave dwellings and combinations of features, which are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science;

    groups of buildings : groups of separate or connected buildings which, because of their architecture, their homogeneity or their place in the landscape, are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science ;

    sites : works of man or the combined works of nature and of man, and areas including archaeological sites which are of outstanding universal value from the historical, aesthetic, ethnological or anthropological points of view.

    (In UNESCO's Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage 1972)

  2. The belief systems, values, philosophical systems, knowledge, behaviors, customs, arts, history, experience, languages, social relationships, institutions, and material goods and creations belonging to a group of people and transmitted from one generation to another. The group of people or society may be bound together by race, age, ethnicity, language, national origin, religion, or other social categories or groupings. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)

  3. Cultural heritage includes all the properties that remain from past generations. Such properties demonstrate human beings' development throughtout history, by studying how cultural identity and cultural path are recognized and by creating a means of learning from the past. (In Article 1 of the 1988 Constitution of the Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization).

  Cultural industries
  1. “Cultural industries” refers to industries producing and distributing cultural goods or services as defined in "Cultural Activities" above.
  Cultural landscapes
  1. Any geographical area that has been modified, influenced, or given special cultural meaning by people. (In Parks Canada Guiding Principles and Operational Policies, 2006).

  2. Cultural landscapes are cultural properties and represent the "combined works of nature and of man" designated in Article 1 of the Convention. They are illustrative of the evolution of human society and settlement over time, under the influence of the physical constraints and/or opportunities presented by their natural environment and of successive social, economic and cultural forces, both external and internal.

    7. They should be selected on the basis both of their outstanding universal value and of their representativity in terms of a clearly defined geo-cultural region and also for their capacity to illustrate the essential and distinct cultural elements of such regions.

    8. The term "cultural landscape" embraces a diversity of manifestations of the interaction between humankind and its natural environment.

    9. Cultural landscapes often reflect specific techniques of sustainable land-use, considering the characteristics and limits of the natural environment they are established in, and a specific spiritual relation to nature. Protection of cultural landscapes can contribute to modern techniques of sustainable land-use and can maintain or enhance natural values in the landscape. The continued existence of traditional forms of land-use supports biological diversity in many regions of the world. The protection of traditional cultural landscapes is therefore helpful in maintaining biological diversity.

    Definition and Categories

    10. Cultural landscapes fall into three main categories, namely:

  3. (i) The most easily identifiable is the clearly defined landscape designed and created intentionally by man. This embraces garden and parkland landscapes constructed for aesthetic reasons which are often (but not always) associated with religious or other monumental buildings and ensembles.

    (ii) The second category is the organically evolved landscape. This results from an initial social, economic, administrative, and/or religious imperative and has developed its present form by association with and in response to its natural environment. Such landscapes reflect that process of evolution in their form and component features. They fall into two sub-categories:

    a. a relict (or fossil) landscape is one in which an evolutionary process came to an end at some time in the past, either abruptly or over a period. Its significant distinguishing features are, however, still visible in material form.
    b. a continuing landscape is one which retains an active social role in contemporary society closely associated with the traditional way of life, and in which the evolutionary process is still in progress. At the same time it exhibits significant material evidence of its evolution over time.

    (iii) The final category is the associative cultural landscape. The inscription of such landscapes on the World Heritage List is justifiable by virtue of the powerful religious, artistic or cultural associations of the natural element rather than material cultural evidence, which may be insignificant or even absent.
    (In UNESCO Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention - WHC. 08/01 January 2008 - http://whc.unesco.org/archive/opguide08-en.pdf)

  4. Cultural landscapes are geographical terrains which exhibit characteristics or which represent the values of a society as a result of human interaction with the environment. (In National Capital Commission and Parks Canada, Workshop, 1993)
  5. A set of ideas and practices, embedded in a place. This definition is used to capture the relationship between the intangible and tangible qualities of these sites. (In Definition and Assessment of Cultural Landscapes of Heritage Value on National Capital Commission Lands, Canada, December 2004)
  6. Cultural landscapes are settings we have created in the natural world. They reveal fundamental ties between people and the land–ties based on our need to grow food, give form to our settlements, meet requirements for recreation, and find suitable places to bury our dead. Landscapes are intertwined patterns of things both natural and constructed: plants and fences, watercourses and buildings. They range from formal gardens to cattle ranches, from cemeteries and pilgrimage routes to village squares. They are special places: expressions of human manipulation and adaptation of the land. (In US National Park Service, NPS-28, 2002)

  7. Cultural landscape is applied to areas of landscape including landscapes where natural features have special meanings to people such as traditional Aboriginal Australian landscapes, to highly modified or developed landscapes. That land may have continuing use or may be a collection of extant remains (In The Australian Heritage Commission 2001, Coleman, Cultural Landscapes Charette: Background Paper)

  8. Much of Australia may be regarded as cultural landscape because of the traditions and practices of Indigenous peoples over thousands of years. Immigrants since the first European settlement have added further layers of historical evidence and social significance to the natural landscape. (From Jane Lennon in Australia State of the Environment 1996).
  9. Cultural landscapes show the interactions between people and the natural environment.(In UNESCO World Heritage in Young Hands, 2002)
  10. The way in which perceptions, beliefs, stories, experiences and practices give shape, form and meaning to the landscape. (In: Conservation Management Planning: Putting Theory into Practice. The Case of Joya de Cerén, El Salvator – Getty Conservation Institute 2009)
  11. A geographic area including both cultural and natural resources and the wildlife or domestic animals therein associated with a historic event, activity, or person or exhibiting other cultural or aesthetic values. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  12. Willowbank defines cultural landscapes as the places that create a sense of place and sense of identity for cultural groups of all kinds, through the combination of artifact and ritual. [2011]
    (http://www.willowbank.ca/content/beta/home/about-us/new/archived-editorials/index/)
  Cultural policies
  1. “Cultural policies and measures” refers to those policies and measures relating to culture, whether at the local, national, regional or international level that are either focused on culture as such or are designed to have a direct effect on cultural expressions of individuals, groups or societies, including on the creation, production, dissemination, distribution of and access to cultural activities, goods and services. (in Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions 2005)
  Cultural property
  1. Objects, collections, specimens, structures, or sites identified as having artistic, historic, scientific, religious, or social significance. ((In AIC Definitions of conservation terminology - http://aic.stanford.edu/geninfo/defin.html)
  2. Objects that are judged by society, or by some of its members, to be of historical, artistic, social or scientific importance. Cultural property can be classified into two major categories:
    a) Movable objects such as works of art, artifacts, books, archival material and other objects of natural, historical or archaeological origin. (In "Code of Ethics" - Canadian Association for Conservation of Cultural Property and the Canadian Association of Professional Conservators, 2000)
    b) Immovable objects such as monuments, architecture, archaeological sites and structures of historical or artistic interest.
  3. Part or whole of an object of archaeological interest or an object of ethnological interest which was first discovered within, and is subject to export control by the State Party. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  Cultural resource
  1. A building, structure, district, site, object or document that is of significance in American history, architecture, archaeology or culture. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Cultural significance
  1. Cultural significance means aesthetic, historic, scientific, social or spiritual value for past, present or future generations. Cultural significance is embodied in the place itself, its fabric, setting, use, associations, meanings, records, related places and related objects.Places may have a range of values for different individuals or groups. (Australia Burra Charter)
  Cultural tourism
  1. branch of tourism whose object is to provide great understanding of monuments and sites, focusing on historical authenticity, preservation, and local involvement. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  Culture
  1. Strengthened patterns of behavior. (F. LeBlanc)
  Culture of peace
  1. Is a transdisciplinary concept that brings together the activities which
    UNESCO carries out to promote adherence to values that are at the
    heart of the spirit of peace. (In UNESCO World Heritage in Young Hands, 2002)
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  Database
  1. "A database "also called electronic database any collection of data, or information, that is specially organized for rapid search and retrieval by a computer. Databases are structured to facilitate the storage, retrieval, modification, and deletion of data in conjunction with various data-processing operations." From: Encyclopedia Britannica
  2. A collection of various types of data, including photographic images, sketches and measurements, condition assessments, and other pieces of information, stored in a systematic way for security and easy retrieval. Individual records or data are separated into sets, themes, and fields, with unique identifiers to allow data to be linked together and queried. Databases can connect separate “pieces” of information together, allowing new information to be derived. (In “Ancestral Art,” by Cliff Ogleby)
  Deconvert (verb)
  1. To decrease the number of dwelling units within a residential or mixed-use structure, or to return a structure, or part of it, to the use from which it had originally been converted (based on the definition of convert.) (National Research Council of Canada, 1982)
  Designed Landscape
  1. A designed landscape is an area of land which has been modified by people for primarily aesthetic effect. The term is used by historians to denote various types of site, such as gardens, parks, cemeteries, and estates. Such sites are often protected for their historic or artistic value. A designed landscape may comprise landform, water, built structures, trees and plants, all of which may be naturally occurring or introduced. (Wikipedia)
  Designation
  1. Legal protection through passage of a bylaw (local or regional government) or Order in Council (provincial). Designation offers long term protection and allows regulation and control of alterations and demolition. (In Heritage BC - http://www.heritagebc.ca/resources/guides-tips-1/terms-definitions)
  Digital Heritage
  1. The digital heritage consists of unique resources of human knowledge and expression. It embraces cultural, educational, scientific and administrative resources, as well as technical, legal, medical and other kinds of information created digitally, or converted into digital form from existing analogue resources. Where resources are “born digital”, there is no other format but the digital object.

    Digital materials include texts, databases, still and moving images, audio, graphics, software and web pages, among a wide and growing range of formats. They are frequently ephemeral, and require purposeful production, maintenance and management to be retained.

    Many of these resources have lasting value and significance, and therefore constitute a heritage that should be protected and preserved for current and future generations. This ever-growing heritage may exist in any language, in any part of the world, and in any area of human knowledge or expression.
    (In UNESCO's Charter on the Preservation of Digital Heritage 15 October 2003)

  Digital heritage recording
  1. As opposed to hand (or traditional) heritage recording, including all forms of digital data capture (ranging from photographs to rectified images, CAD to photogrammetry, total stations to 3D laser scanning, voice to video, etc.). (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Documentation
  1. Refers to the already existing stock of information. As an activity it stands for the systematic collection and archiving of records, in order to preserve them for future reference. It can be said: today's recording is tomorrow's documentation. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  2. Use broadly for the gathering and recording of information, especially to establish or provide evidence of facts or testimony. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  3. All of the records, written and pictorial, accumulated during the examination and treatment of a cultural property. Where applicable, documentation includes the examination records and report, treatment proposal, owner consent, the treatment records and report, the recommendations for subsequent care, samples taken from the cultural property and relevant correspondence. The purpose of documentation is:
    • to record the condition of the cultural property;
    • to record information revealed during examination or other conservation activities that assists in the understanding of the cultural property;
    • to record the changes to the property due to conservation activities, and the justification for those changes;
    • to provide inform ation helpful to future care and treatment of the cultural property;
    • to record agreements or understandings between the conservation professional and the owner; and
    • to provide documents that can be made available if and when required for legal purposes.
    (In "Code of Ethics" - Canadian Association for Conservation of Cultural Property and the Canadian Association of Professional Conservators, 2000)
  Documents
  1. Refers especially to recorded information regardless of medium or characteristics, whether created specifically as records of information or used as such at some time subsequent to their creation. In its broadest sense, however, can include any item amenable to cataloging and indexing, that is, not only written and printed materials in paper or microform versions but also nonprint media and, in some circumstances, three-dimensional objects or realia. For the activity of gathering and recording information, see "documentation (function)." (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  Demolish
  1. To tear down completely or to do away with completely. (Webster’s II Dictionary, 1988)
  Demolition by neglect
  1. The destruction of a building through abandonment or lack of maintenance. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Design
  1. The combination of elements that create the form, plan, space, structure, and style of a structure. (Getty Conservation Institute Glossary for Iraq Course 2004)
  2. Discipline comprising the creation of conceptual schemes for the organization or appearance of graphic works, objects, structures, or systems. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  Design-build
  1. A contracting arrangement in which a person or organization assumes responsibility under a single contract for both the design and construction of a project. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  Design development drawings
  1. Drawings done when an architectural design is more developed than at the stage of conceptual and schematic drawings but is not yet to the stage of working drawings. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  Design drawings
  1. Drawings intended to work out the scheme of a project, whether the project is expected to be executed or not; more finished than sketches. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  Design guidelines
  1. Criteria developed to identify design concerns for historic properties including buildings, sites, districts, objects and landscape to help ensure rehabilitations and new construction respect the character of the historic properties. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Design elements
  1. The Design Elements hierarchy contains descriptors for conventionalized and recurring shapes and arrangements of forms used in the design of many types of object and their ornament. These may be two-dimensional such as painted zigzags, in relief such as carved rosettes, or may refer to the shape of discrete objects, such as Celtic crosses sculpted in stone. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  Develop (verb)
  1. To convert (a tract of land) to a specific purpose, as by building extensively (Webster’s II Dictionary, 1988)
  Document (verb)
  1. To capture information regarding a site and it’s context including change over time. (Workgroup at Getty Conservation Institute 2003)
  2. To process, understand, store and communicate recorded information. It involves interpretation. (Workgroup at Getty Conservation Institute 2003)
  3. Planning, organizing, and managing the recording with specific goals. (Workgroup at Getty Conservation Institute 2003)
  Documentation
  1. The recording in a permanent format of information derived from conservation activities. ((In AIC Definitions of conservation terminology - http://aic.stanford.edu/geninfo/defin.html)
  2. The collection and compilation of different types of records, that should complement each other, in order to achieve an assessment of a group of buildings or site. (Workgroup at Getty Conservation Institute 2003)
  3. The existing stock of information constituted by previously produced records. (Workgroup at Getty Conservation Institute 2003)
  4. The assembly, analysis and interpretation of recorded data. (Workgroup at Getty Conservation Institute 2003)
  5. A collection of data. (Workgroup at Getty Conservation Institute 2003)
  Documentary and physical evidence
  1. Historic features and details of a historic property are portrayed through historic photographs, works of art, original drawing plans or through physical remainders such as shadow or ghost marks. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
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  Ecologically sustainable development
  1. Using, conserving and enhancing the community's resources so that ecological processes, on which life depends, are maintained and the total quality of life - now and in the future - can be increased. (In: Conservation Management Planning: Putting Theory into Practice. The Case of Joya de Cerén, El Salvator - Getty Conservation Institute 2009).
  Element
  1. A physical component of a historic property such as roof, window, column, etc. and can be the subject of a treatment intervention. Also referred to as a feature. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Essential physical features
  1. Those features of a heritage place that define both why a property is significant and when it was significant. (Getty Conservation Institute Glossary for Iraq Course 2004)
  Ethnographic landscape
  1. A landscape containing a variety of natural and cultural resources that associated people define as heritage resources. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Examination
  1. The investigation of the structure, materials, and condition of cultural property including the identification of the extent and causes of alteration and deterioration. ((In AIC Definitions of conservation terminology - http://aic.stanford.edu/geninfo/defin.html)
  2. Scrutinizing a situation or object, usually in order to determine its nature, qualities, or current condition. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  3. All activities carried out to determine the structure, materials, relevant history and condition
    of a cultural property, including the extent of deterioration, alteration and loss. Examination
    also includes analyses and study of relevant material, as well as the study of relevant
    historical and contemporary information. (In "Code of Ethics" - Canadian Association for Conservation of Cultural Property and the Canadian Association of Professional Conservators, 2000)
  Extend (verb)
  1. To increase in bulk or quantity. (Webster’s II Dictionary, 1988)
  Extranet
  1. Is a computer network that allows controlled access from the outside for specific business or educational purposes. Extranets are extensions to, or segments of, private intranet networks that have been built in many corporations for information sharing and e-commerce. From: About Wireless / Networking (http://compnetworking.about.com/od/itinformationtechnology/l/bldef_extranet.htm)
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  Fabric
  1. Fabric means all the physical material of the place including components, fixtures, contents, and objects. Fabric includes building interiors and sub-surface remains, as well as excavated material. (Australia Burra Charter).
  2. The physical material of the place. Remedial (or Physical) Conservation consist mainly of direct action carried out on the cultural property with the aim of retarding further deterioration. (In: Conservation Management Planning: Putting Theory into Practice. The Case of Joya de Cerén, El Salvator – Getty Conservation Institute 2009)
  3. The physical material of a building, structure, or community, connoting an interweaving of component parts. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Façade
  1. The exterior face of a building that is the architectural front, sometimes distinguished from the other faces by elaboration of architectural ornamental details. Also referred to as building elevations. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  False historical appearance
  1. Creating exact replicas of historic architectural or design features of a building, structure or landscape in which one cannot decipher if it is historic or modern. Also referred to as false sense of history. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Feature
  1. A physical component of a historic property such as street, tree, roof, window, etc. and can be the subject of a treatment intervention. Also referred to as an element. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Filling
  1. Inserting material into a hole, crack, or cavity. In the specific context of mosaic conservation, the application of mortar or other material into an area of loss of the mosaic surface. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  Folklore
  1. Folklore (or traditional and popular culture) is the totality of tradition-based creations of a cultural community, expressed by a group or individuals and recognized as reflecting the expectations of a community in so far as they reflect its cultural and social identity; its standards and values are transmitted orally, by imitation or by other means. Its forms are, among others, language, literature, music, dance, games, mythology, rituals, customs, handicrafts, architecture and other arts. (In UNESCO's Recommendation on the Safeguarding of Traditional Culture and Folklore 15 November 1989)
  2. Traditional and expressive forms of culture, such as song, story, dance, ritual, handicraft, art, food ways, costume, custom, religion, architecture, and work skills, and of the processes and meanings that underlie them. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
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  General Conference of UNESCO
  1. All Member States of UNESCO meet every two years to approve the programme and budget of the organization. (In UNESCO World Heritage in Young Hands, 2002)
  Gentrify (verb)
  1. To resettle existing deteriorated dwellings in urban areas, following rehabilitation or renovation, with occupants having higher income levels than the original ones. (National Research Council of Canada, 1982).
  Geographic information system (GIS)
  1. Geographic information Systems are computerized systems that allow the user to work with, interrelate, and analyze virtually all forms of spatial data. Typically a GIS consists of three major components: a database of geospatial and thematic data and information, a capability to spatially model or analyze the data sets, and a graphical display capability."
    From: American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing http://www.asprs.org/career/
  2. An effective descriptive, analytical, and communication tool to map and assess sites and prioritize necessary work. A GIS is a geographic database that combines spatial information in graphic form with tabular data. (In “Planning Interventions,” by Frank Matero and Judy Peters
  Guidelines
  1. statements that provide practical guidance in applying the Standards for the Conservation of Historic Places. (In Parks Canada Standards and Guidelines for the Conservation of Historic Places in Canada - http://www.pc.gc.ca/docs/pc/guide/nldclpc-sgchpc/sec1/page1b_e.asp#tphp)
  Global Positioning System (GPS)
  1. "The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system made up of a network of 24 satellites placed into orbit by the U.S. Department of Defense. GPS was originally intended for military applications, but in the 1980s, the government made the system available for civilian use. GPS works in any weather conditions, anywhere in the world, 24 hours a day. " From: Garmin http://www.garmin.com/aboutGPS/
  2. A navigation and mapping tool that uses special equipment to receive radio signals transmitted from a network of twenty-four satellites that circle the earth twice a day in precise orbits. GPS allows the rapid acquisition of detailed and comprehensive data with pinpoint accuracy. There are two general categories of GPS radio receivers ranging in accuracy. For these two categories, accuracy can be improved to several centimeters with a differential signal, which is a ground-based radio station or
    transmitter. This base station transmits signals that supplement the signals from the satellites. Non-survey grade or handheld GPS devices, in contrast, usually are not corrected by a ground-based station and range between 5 and 15 meters in accuracy. (In “Mapping Features,” by Jo Anne Van Tilburg, Cristián Arévalo Pakarati, and Alice Hom in Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Graphic record
  1. General term used for measured drawings, rectified photographs, ortho-photomosaics or 3D models, graphically or photographically describing the physical configuration of a heritage place with its dimensional and architectural characteristics. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Ground penetrating radar (GPR)
  1. "Ground penetrating radar uses electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering to image, locate and quantitatively identify changes in electrical and magnetic properties in the ground." From: http://www.g-p-r.com/introduc.ht
  2. A nondestructive technique that uses electromagnetic waves to investigate the underground or internal structures of natural or man-made objects. The technique has been used successfully in investigating the characteristics of and damage to walls and masonry structures, including voids, detachments, cracks, leaks, and deteriorated mortar joints. GPR has good accuracy and is easily handled and transported. The basic system consists of a data acquisition unit and two (transmitting and receiving) antennae. The transmitter sends pulses of high-frequency radio waves. When a wave hits the boundary of an object with different electrical properties, the receiving antenna records these variations-known as anomalies-that are reflected in the return signal. (In “Subsurface Conditions,” by Marco Tallini in Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Groups of buildings
  1. groups of buildings: groups of separate or connected buildings which, because of their architecture, their homogeneity or their place in the landscape, are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science. (UNESCO World Heritage Convention Art.1)
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  Hand survey
  1. "Hand survey is defined as the process of measurement or architectural detail where physical contact is made with the feature being measured."
    From: Ross Dallas in Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008.
 

Heritage

(Patrimoine)

  1. "Whatever you want to preserve for the next generations" See article by F. LeBlanc: Is Everything Heritage? at http://www.icomos.org/~fleblanc/publications/pub_is_everything_heritage.html
  2. Heritage is defined as "the combined creations and products of nature and man, in their entirety, that make up the environment in which we live in space and time.Heritage is a reality, a possession of the community, and a rich inheritance that may be passed on, which invites our recognition and our participation." (Quebec Association for the Interpretation of the National Heritage, Committee on Terminology, July 1980).
  3. Heritage means any asset or group of assets, natural or cultural, tangible or intangible, that a community recognizes for its value as a witness to history and memory, while emphasizing the need to safeguard, to protect, to adopt, to promote and to disseminate such heritage.

    Le patrimoine désigne tout objet ou ensemble, naturel ou culturel, matériel ou immatériel, qu'une collectivité reconnaît pour ses valeurs de témoignage et de mémoire historique en faisant ressortir la nécessité de le protéger, de le conserver, de se l'approprier, de le mettre en valeur et de le transmettre. (Montréal - Groupe-conseil pour une politique du patrimoine, 2004, Énoncé d'orientation pour une politique du patrimoine, p.4)
  Heritage area
  1. A synonym for a designated historic district or conservation area, which denotes a neighborhood unified by a similar use, architectural style and/or historical development. (Heritage Canada Foundation 1983)
  Heritage information
  1. The integrated activities of Recording, Documentation and Information Management. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Heritage place
  1. A site, area, region, building or other structure (together with associated contents and surroundings) that has heritage value. (In: Conservation Management Planning: Putting Theory into Practice. The Case of Joya de Cerén, El Salvator – Getty Conservation Institute 2009)
  Heritage protection
  1. The means of taking care of natural and cultural heritage values of a place; includes legislation, policies and management frameworks. (In: Conservation Management Planning: Putting Theory into Practice. The Case of Joya de Cerén, El Salvator – Getty Conservation Institute 2009)
  Heritage record
  1. Is a technical dossier of a cultural heritage place prepared by heritage recorders. It consists of measured drawings, photographs and technical analysis. They are meant to provide necessary basic data for conservation and monitoring activities. They also provide the public archives with posterity records. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Heritage recorder
  1. Expert in measured survey and photographic techniques, providing heritage records of heritage places. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Heritage recording
  1. Is the graphic and/or photographic capturing of information describing the physical configuration, evolution and the condition of a heritage at known points in time. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Heritage resource
  1. Refers to an artifact, building, site, or other feature that has heritage value or character. (In Heritage BC - http://www.heritagebc.ca/resources/guides-tips-1/terms-definitions)
  Heritage recording tools
  1. Mainly referring to measured survey tools used by heritage recorders to carry out the heritage recording of a heritage place. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Heritage trails
  1. Organized and labeled trails laid out to follow points of interest concerning the local history of a region. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  Heritage value
  1. The aesthetic, historic, scientific, cultural, social or spiritual importance or significance for past, present or future generations. The heritage value of a historic place is embodied in its character-defining materials, forms, location, spatial configurations, uses and cultural associations or meanings. (In Parks Canada Standards and Guidelines for the Conservation of Historic Places in Canada - http://www.pc.gc.ca/docs/pc/guide/nldclpc-sgchpc/sec1/page1b_e.asp#tphp)
  Historic and architectural areas
  1. 1. For the purposes of the present recommendation:

    (a) `Historic and architectural (including vernacular) areas' shall be taken to mean any groups of buildings, structures and open spaces including ar-chaeological and palaeontological sites, constituting human settlements in an urban or rural environment, the cohesion and value of which, from the archaeological, architectural, prehistoric, historic, aesthetic or sociocultural point of view are recognized. Among these `areas', which are very varied in nature, it is possible to distinguish the following 'in particular : prehistoric sites, historic towns, old urban quarters, villages and hamlets as well as homogeneous monumental groups, it being understood that the latter should as a rule be carefully preserved unchanged.

    (b) The `environment' shall be taken to mean the natural or man-made setting which influences the static or dynamic way these areas are perceived or which is directly linked to them in space or by social, economic or cultural ties.

    (c) `Safeguarding' shall be taken to mean the identification, protection, con-servation, restoration, renovation, maintenance and revitalization of historic or traditional areas and their environment.

    (In UNESCO's Recommendation concerning the Safeguarding and Contemporary Role of Historic Areas 26 November 1976)

  Historic buildings
  1. Buildings that are significant in the history of architecture, that incorporate significant architectural features, or that played significant historic roles in local cultural or social development; may or may not be officially designated. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  2. building included in, or eligible for inclusion in the NRHP which is significant for its association with a historic event, activity or person. A building is created principally to shelter any form of human activity. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Historic character
  1. The physical elements of a historic property that contribute to its significance. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Historic context
  1. A unit created for planning purposes that groups information about historic properties based on a shared theme, specific time period and geographical area. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Historic designed landscape
  1. A landscape that was consciously designed or laid out by a landscape architect, master gardener, architect, engineer, or horticulturist according to design principles, or an amateur gardener working in a recognized style or tradition. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Historic districts
  1. Districts or areas designated by a governing body as being culturally or historically significant, or embodying distinctive characteristics of a period, method of construction, or inhabitants. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  2. A geographically definable area with a significant concentration of buildings, structures, sites, spaces or objects unified by past events, physical development, design, setting, materials, workmanship, sense of cohesiveness or related historic and aesthetic associations. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Historic garden
  1. Article 1: A historic garden is an architectural and horticultural composition of interest to the public from the historical or artistic point of view. As such, it is to be considered as a monument.

    Article 2: "The historic garden is an architectural composition whose constituents are primarily vegetal and therefore living, which means that they are perishable and renewable." Thus its appearance reflects the perpetual balance between the cycle of the seasons, the growth and decay of nature and the desire of the artist and craftsman to keep it permanently unchanged.
    (ICOMOS Florence Charter 1982).
  2. Gardens designed to reflect a period in history, either in form or through the use of heirloom plants.
    (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  Historic monument
  1. The concept of a historic monument embraces not only the single architectural work but also the urban or rural setting in which is found the evidence of a particular civilization, a significant development or a historic event. This applies not only to great works of art but also to more modest works of the past which have acquired cultural significance with the passing of time. (VeniceCharter Art.1 ).
  2. Refers to monuments with local, regional, or international political, cultural, or artistic significance. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  Historic object
  1. An object included in, or eligible for inclusion in the NRHP which is significant for its association with a historic event, activity or person. Objects are those constructions that are primarily artistic in nature or are relatively small in scale and simply constructed. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Historic place
  1. Any land, building or structure that forms part of the historical and cultural heritage of New Zealand and is within the territorial limits of New Zealand. Includes anything fixed to this land. (New Zealand Historic Places Act 1993).
  2. A structure, building, group of buildings, district, landscape, archaeological site or other place in Canada that has been formally recognized for its heritage value. (In Parks Canada Standards and Guidelines for the Conservation of Historic Places in Canada - http://www.pc.gc.ca/docs/pc/guide/nldclpc-sgchpc/sec1/page1b_e.asp#tphp)
  3. A site, building or other place of national historic interest or significance, and includes buildings or structures that are of national interest by reason of age or architectural design. (In Historic Sites and Monuments Act, Section 2, http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/ShowFullDoc/cs/h-4///en)
  Historic property
  1. Any prehistoric or historic district, site, building, structure, or object included in, or eligible for inclusion in the NRHP, including artifacts, records, and material remains related to such a property or resource. Also known as a cultural resource. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Historic resource
  1. A historic place within the meaning of the Historic Places Act. Includes any interest in a historic place. (New Zealand Conservation Act 1987).
  Historic site
  1. A site included in, or eligible for inclusion in the NRHP which is significant for its association with a historic event, activity or person. A site is the location of a significant event, prehistoric or historic occupation or activity, whether standing, ruined, or vanished, where the location itself possesses historic, cultural, or archeological value. A site can be a landscape. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Historic structure
  1. A structure included in, or eligible for inclusion in the National Register which is significant for its association with a historic event, activity or person. A structure is created for purposes other than creating human shelter. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Historic value
  1. History of aesthetics, science and society, and therefore could be used to encompass a range of values. A place may have historic value because it has influenced, or has been influenced by, an historic figure, event, phase, or activity. It may be the site of an important event. History can describe the 'story' of a place or its people and can apply to any period, though not usually the current period. (In: Conservation Management Planning: Putting Theory into Practice. The Case of Joya de Cerén, El Salvator - Getty Conservation Institute 2009).
  Historic vernacular landscape
  1. A landscape that evolved through use by the people whose activities or occupancy shaped it. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Hyper text markup language (HTML)
  1. Is the authoring language used to create documents on the World Wide Web. HTML is similar to SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language), although it is not a strict subset. HTML defines the structure and layout of a Web document by using a variety of tags and attributes. From Webopedia http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/H/HTML.html)
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  Identity
  1. To determine the original existing features and materials of a historic property. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Improve (verb)
  1. To advance to a better quality or state. (Webster's II Dictionary, 1988).
  Indigenous significance
  1. Refers to Indigenous heritage value and includes Aboriginal sites showing evidence of Aboriginal occupation and Aboriginal places whyich are of contemporary or spiritual imp[ortance according to Aboriginal culture or custom. (In Australia Centennial Parklands Conservation Management Plan 2003)
  Infill (verb)
  1. To combine new structures with old ones in order to upgrade a whole community; sensitive infilling means doing this without disrupting existing community values and continuity. (James G. Ripley, Editorial in Canadian Building, April 1978).
  2. Real estate development which aims to maintain the character of an older area by adding new buildings that are architecturally similar to those already there. For the insertion of material to fill a hole or area of loss, see "filling." (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  Information management
  1. The process of acquiring, storing and sharing site documentation to ensure its accessibility, security and reliability. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management Guidelines for World Cultural Heritage - Letellier R. 1999).
  2. Refers to the process of finding, cataloguing, storing, and sharing information by making it accessible to potential users now and in the future. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  3. Broadly, functions associated with the organization and control of information, including processing, storage, and retrieval. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  Information sources
  1. All material, written, oral and figurative sources which make it possible to know the nature, specifications, meaning and history of the cultural heritage. (Nara Conference on Authenticity in Relation to the World Heritage Convention, held at Nara, Japan, from 1-6 November 1994).
  Information units
  1. A general term for partial information (or records) produced by individuals at different stages during a conservation process. The term refers to both the output of conservation professionals and heritage recorders. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Infrared reflectography
  1. "Infrared reflectography is a photographic or digital imaging technique that uses a specially designed heat-sensitive film or detector to capture absorption and emission characteristics of reflected, infrared radiation" From: University of Melbourne
    http://www.culturalconservation.unimelb.edu.au/research
  2. A nondestructive digital or photographic imaging technique that uses a specialized digital detector or heat-sensitive film to capture absorption and emission characteristics of reflected infrared radiation
    between 750 and 2000 nanometers. IRR is simple, quick, and effective in investigating surface conditions by detecting original faded or hidden drawings, and in penetrating through the upper layers of overpainted surfaces. (In “Reading Interventions,” by Soon-Kwan Kim in Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Intangible cultural heritage
  1. 1. The “intangible cultural heritage” means the practices, representations, expressions, knowledge, skills – as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts and cultural spaces associated therewith – that communities, groups and, in some cases, individuals recognize as part of their cultural heritage. This intangible cultural heritage, transmitted from generation to generation, is constantly recreated by communities and groups in response to their environment, their interaction with nature and their history, and provides them with a sense of identity and continuity, thus promoting respect for cultural diversity and human creativity. For the purposes of this Convention, consideration will be given solely to such intangible cultural heritage as is compatible with existing international human rights instruments, as well as with the requirements of mutual respect among communities, groups and individuals, and of sustainable development.

    2. The “intangible cultural heritage”, as defined in paragraph 1 above, is manifested inter alia in the following domains:

    (a) oral traditions and expressions, including language as a vehicle of the intangible cultural heritage;

    (b) performing arts;

    (c) social practices, rituals and festive events;

    (d) knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe;

    (e) traditional craftsmanship.

    (In Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage 2003)
  Integrity
  1. In the case of structures, the authenticity of physical characteristics from which the structure obtains its significance. (Getty Conservation Institute Glossary for Iraq Course 2004).
  2. Integrity is a measure of the wholeness and intactness of the
    natural and/or cultural heritage and its attributes. Examining
    the conditions of integrity, therefore requires assessing the
    extent to which the property:
    a) includes all elements necessary to express its
    outstanding universal value;
    b) is of adequate size to ensure the complete
    representation of the features and processes which
    convey the property’s significance;
    c) suffers from adverse effects of development and/or
    neglect.
    (In UNESCO Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention - WHC. 08/01 January 2008 - http://whc.unesco.org/archive/opguide08-en.pdf)
  3. The authenticity of a property's historic identity, evidenced by the survival of physical characteristics that existed during the property's historic or prehistoric period. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Installation, military
  1. A military facility in a fixed or relatively fixed location, together with its buildings, building equipment, and subsidiary facility. Also referred to as base, post, camp and station. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Interculturality
  1. “Interculturality” refers to the existence and equitable interaction of diverse cultures and the possibility of generating shared cultural expressions through dialogue and mutual respect. (In UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions 2005)
  Internet
  1. sometimes called simply "the Net," is a worldwide system of computer networks - a network of networks in which users at any one computer can, if they have permission, get information from any other computer (and sometimes talk directly to users at other computers).

    It was conceived by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the U.S. government in 1969 and was first known as the ARPANET. The original aim was to create a network that would allow users of a research computer at one university to be able to "talk to" research computers at other universities. A side benefit of ARPANet's design was that, because messages could be routed or rerouted in more than one direction, the network could continue to function even if parts of it were destroyed in the event of a military attack or other disaster.

    Today, the Internet is a public, cooperative, and self-sustaining facility accessible to hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Physically, the Internet uses a portion of the total resources of the currently existing public telecommunication networks. Technically, what distinguishes the Internet is its use of a set of protocols called TCP/IP (for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). Two recent adaptations of Internet technology, the intranet and the extranet, also make use of the TCP/IP protocol. From: SearchWebServices.com - Definitions (http://searchwebservices.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid26_gci212370,00.html)

  Interpretation
  1. Interpretation means all the ways of presenting the cultural significance of a place. (Australia Burra Charter).
  2. Interpretation is a means of communicating ideas and feelings which help people enrich their understanding and appreciation of their world and their role within it. (In: Conservation Management Planning: Putting Theory into Practice. The Case of Joya de Cerén, El Salvator - Getty Conservation Institute 2009).
  Intervention
  1. Any action, other than demolition or destruction, that results in a physical change to an element of a historic place. (In Parks Canada Standards and Guidelines for the Conservation of Historic Places in Canada - http://www.pc.gc.ca/docs/pc/guide/nldclpc-sgchpc/sec1/page1b_e.asp#tphp)
  Intranet
  1. is the generic term for a collection of private computer networks within an organization. Intranets are communication tools designed to enable easy information sharing within workgroups. Intranets utilize standard network hardware and software technologies like Ethernet, TCP/IP, Web browsers and Web servers. An organization's intranet often features Internet access but is firewalled so that its computers cannot be reached directly from the outside. A common extension to intranets, called extranets (see definition above), open holes in this firewall to provide controlled access to outsiders. From Bradley Mitchell, Your Guide to Wireless / Networking (http://compnetworking.about.com/cs/intranets/g/bldef_intranet.htm)
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  Landscapes
  1. Exterior spaces that have been assigned cultural (including spiritual) meaning, such as an Aboriginal sacred site, or have been deliberately altered in the past for aesthetic, cultural, or functional reasons, such as a city park, a cemetery oa a backyard garden. Landscapes include land patterns, landforms, spatial organization, and vegetation. They also include related circulation systems, water features, built features, and views or other visual relationships. (In Parks Canada's Standards and Guidelines - http://www.pc.gc.ca/docs/pc/guide/nldclpc-sgchpc/sec3/page3e_e.asp).
  2. a "Landscape" means an area, as perceived by people, whose character is the result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors;

    b "Landscape policy" means an expression by the competent public authorities of general principles, strategies and guidelines that permit the taking of specific measures aimed at the protection, management and planning of landscapes;

    c "Landscape quality objective" means, for a specific landscape, the formulation by the competent public authorities of the aspirations of the public with regard to the landscape features of their surroundings;

    d "Landscape protection" means actions to conserve and maintain the significant or characteristic features of a landscape, justified by its heritage value derived from its natural configuration and/or from human activity;

    e "Landscape management" means action, from a perspective of sustainable development, to ensure the regular upkeep of a landscape, so as to guide and harmonise changes which are brought about by social, economic and environmental processes;

    f "Landscape planning" means strong forward-looking action to enhance, restore or create landscapes.
    (From European Landscape Convention, Florence, 20.X.2000 - http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/en/Treaties/Html/176.htm)

  3. A place containing cultural and natural features and values which extend over a large area. Sometimes used to refer to rural landscapes, but may also include extensive places within urban areas such as parks or gardens.(In: Conservation Management Planning: Putting Theory into Practice. The Case of Joya de Cerén, El Salvator – Getty Conservation Institute 2009)

  Landscape, historic military
  1. A landscape that is uniquely shaped in support of a particular military mission and is associated with historically important persons or events, or is an important indicator of the broad patterns of history. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Landscape, military
  1. A landscape that is uniquely shaped through activities in support of a particular military mission. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Laser scanning
  1. "3D Laser Scanning is the process of gathering object or environmental data through 'touchless' collection. Although the actual mechanics may vary from system to system, the process in general consists of a series of laser pulses that are bounced from the scanning unit to the object. By calculating the time of flight of the pulse along with the speed of light, the scanner can then deduce exactly how far away the object surface is at each bounce." From: http://wvvel.csee.wvu.edu/scanning/
    "Laser Scanning - use of a laser to collect dimensional data in the form of a "point cloud." From: http://www.dirdim.com/lm_terminology.htm
    Laser scanning is the method of mass 3D point capture using automated laser. From: English Heritage - Documentation for Conservation: A Manual for Teaching Metric Survey Skills
  Laser scanning technologies
  1. These technologies are generally based on one of three methods: (1) time of flight-a laser pulse is emitted, and the time of light travel is measured; (2) phase comparison-light is emitted at a known frequency, and the shift between sending and returning phases is compared; and (3) triangulation-with a known width between a laser emitter and detector, the angles of sent and returned light provide the distance, using the Pythagorean theorem. Using these technologies, XYZ coordinates are recorded as millions of individual points. At high densities, these individual measures form a “point cloud,” from which a mesh can be generated to create a 3-D model. (In “A Record for
    Posterity,” by Alonzo Addison in (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).)
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  Maintain (verb)
  1. To preserve or keep in a given existing condition, as of efficiency or good repair. (Webster's II Dictionary, 1988).
  2. To keep components in good working order. (Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing, Canada, 1982).
  Maintenance
  1. Maintenance means the continuous protective care of the fabric and setting of a place, and is to be distinguished from repair. Repair involves restoration or reconstruction. (Australia Burra Charter).
  2. Actions to slow the rate of deterioration of fabric and extend building life. Maintenance is generally divided into three categories:

    * Emergency: Maintenance that must be carried out immediately in order to stabilize the structure for future habitation.
    * Preventive: Action taken to avoid expected failures. The simplest preventive maintenance is regular inspection of building systems. This process also monitors the service life of materials and systems.
    * Routine: Activities that take place on a regular basis. The most common is cleaning or housekeeping to remove deposits of soil before they can accumulate and cause damage to surfaces. (In Heritage BC - http://www.heritagebc.ca/resources/guides-tips-1/terms-definitions).

  3. Routine, cyclical, non-destructive actions necessary to slow the deterioration of a historic place. It entails periodic inspection; routine, cyclical, non-destructive cleaning; minor repair and refinishing operations; replacement of damaged or deteriorated materials that are impractical to save. (In Parks Canada Standards and Guidelines for the Conservation of Historic Places in Canada - http://www.pc.gc.ca/docs/pc/guide/nldclpc-sgchpc/sec1/page1b_e.asp#tphp)
  4. Means upkeep of fabric and places to the standards required by the New South Whales Heritage Act 1977, and does not involve restoration, reconstruction or reinstatement. (In Australia Centennial Parklands Conservation Management Plan 2003)
  5. The continuous protective care of the fabric, contents or setting of a place. In technical terms maintenance consists of regular inspections of a monument or site and may involve small-scale treatments (e.g. surface cleaning, renewal of protective coatings, etc.). Preventative maintenance is a powerful tool to prevent decay and avoid large-scale conservation-restoration treatments. A suitable maintenance program implemented after the conservation treatment aims at preserving its improved conditions. (In: Conservation Management Planning: Putting Theory into Practice. The Case of Joya de Cerén, El Salvator – Getty Conservation Institute 2009)

  Management
  1. Management of a place involves making conscious choices about what happens to the place and taking action to make those things happen. Management includes the widest possible range of actions and decisions, such as:
    • establishing the appropriate decision-making group and processes;
    • assessing significance;
    • deciding to open or not open a site to visitor management;
    • approving site works and physical conservation;
    • setting up decision-making structures to implement strategies;
    • arranging access rights or means to achieve access (such as transport); and
    • deciding to take no action.

    (In: Conservation Management Planning: Putting Theory into Practice. The Case of Joya de Cerén, El Salvator – Getty Conservation Institute 2009)

  Management plan
  1. A document which details how to look after the heritage and non-heritage features of a place. It may contain a conservation plan and/or its components. They go further than conservation plans in their consideration of the practical circumstances, including the economic and political context which affects the use of places. (In: Conservation Management Planning: Putting Theory into Practice. The Case of Joya de Cerén, El Salvator - Getty Conservation Institute 2009).
  Manual recording techniques
  1. Although often labor intensive, these techniques use tools that are readily available and allow the study of buildings or sites in great detail. Usually this method of recording provides sufficient information and accuracy to begin conservation. Manual recording techniques incorporate tools such as plumb bobs, measuring tapes, and paper and pencil. (In “Wall Deformation,” by
    Sandeep Sikka in Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Marine Corps
  1. Military service of the Department of the Navy. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Materials
  1. The physical elements that were combined or deposited during a particular period of time and in a particular pattern or configuration to form a historic place. (Getty Conservation Institute Glossary for Iraq Course 2004).
  Meanings
  1. Meanings denote what a place signifies, indicates, evokes or expresses. (Australia Burra Charter).
  Measured drawing
  1. Drawing produced by using direct or indirect measurements on the object. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Measured survey
  1. The activity of producing measured drawings on site by hand measurement, and/or by using various heritage recording tools (e.g. total stations, photogrammetry, 3D laser scanners, etc). (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Member State
  1. Countries which are members of UNESCO are known as Member States. (In UNESCO World Heritage in Young Hands, 2002)
  Minimal intervention
  1. The approach which allows functional goals to be met with the least physical intervention. (In Parks Canada Standards and Guidelines for the Conservation of Historic Places in Canada - http://www.pc.gc.ca/docs/pc/guide/nldclpc-sgchpc/sec1/page1b_e.asp#tphp)
  Modernize (verb)
  1. To make modern in appearance or style. (Webster's II Dictionary, 1988)
  Monitoring
  1. Repeated measurement of changes and based on defined standards, which permit to evaluate changes occurring on a heritage asset. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Monuments
  1. Monuments: architectural works, works of monumental sculpture and painting, elements or structures of an archaeological nature, inscriptions, cave dwellings and combinations of features, which are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science. (UNESCO World Heritage Convention Art.1)
  Mothballing
  1. The process of closing up a building temporarily to protect it from the weather as well as to secure it from vandalism. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
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  National Historic Landmark
  1. Historic property designated by the Secretary of the Interior for having exceptional significance in the nation’s history. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  National Historic Preservation Act
  1. US Federal law passed in 1966 requiring theconsideration of historic properties in the planning and implementation of and use and development of projects. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  National historic site
  1. A place designated under sbusection (2) or a natiopnal historic site of Canada to which the Canada National Parks Act applies. (In Parks Canada Agency Act, Section 2.1. http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/ShowFullDoc/cs/p-0.4///en)
  National Register of Historic Places
  1. A list of properties which are significant in American history and worthy of preservation. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Natural heritage
  1. Article 2

    For the purposes of this Convention, the following shall be considered as `natural heritage':

    natural features consisting of physical and biological formations or groups of such formations, which are of outstanding universal value from the aesthetic or scientific point of view;

    geological and physiographical formations and precisely delineated areas which constitute the habitat of threatened species of animals and plants of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation;

    natural sites or precisely delineated natural areas of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science, conservation or natural beauty.

    (In UNESCO's Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage 1972)


  Natural significance
  1. Means the importance of ecosystems, biodiversity and geodiversity for their existence value for present or future generations, in terms of their scientific, social, aesthetic and life-support value. (In Australia Centennial Parklands Conservation Management Plan 2003).
  Noncontributing element or resource
  1. A building, site, structure or object that does not add to the historical associations, historical architectural qualities or archaeological values for which a property is significant. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
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  Open-source software
  1. A computer program whose source code may be used, modified, or altered. Developers of proprietary software usually do not allow modification by others. Open-source software is developed as a public collaboration and made freely available. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Outdoor Architectural Museum
  1. Involves entire buildings displayer in an open air environment. The museum may include endangered buildings which have been moved to the site, reconstructions of non-extant buildings or recreations of buildings characteristic of a particular era. (In The Heritage Canada Foundation - Preservation Strategy No.3, 1983).
  Outstanding universal value
  1. Outstanding universal value means cultural and/or natural significance which is so exceptional as to transcend national boundaries and to be of common importance for present andfuture generations of all humanity. As such, the permanent protection of this heritage is of the highest importance to the
    international community as a whole. The Committee defines the criteria for the inscription of properties on the World Heritage List. (In UNESCO Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention - WHC. 08/01 January 2008 - http://whc.unesco.org/archive/opguide08-en.pdf)
  2. To say that a site is of outstanding universal value means that its disappearance would be an irreplaceable loss for all peoples of the world. Outstanding universal value may be defined more simply as World Heritage value. (In UNESCO World Heritage in Young Hands, 2002)
  Originator
  1. The originator is either:
    1. The person(s) who designed or created the cultural property, or
    2. The person(s) representing the creator or designer of the cultural property by legal, moral or spiritual right. (In "Code of Ethics" - Canadian Association for Conservation of Cultural Property and the Canadian Association of Professional Conservators, 2000)
  Owner
  1. The owner is either:
    1. The person(s) having legal ownership of the cultural property, or his/her authorized
    agent, or
    2. The person(s), such as the museum director, curator, archivist or librarian, exercising professional custodianship over a cultural property. (In "Code of Ethics" - Canadian Association for Conservation of Cultural Property and the Canadian Association of Professional Conservators, 2000)
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  Patrimonito
  1. Patrimonito is a character symbolizing a young person who protects heritage. It
    was created by the participants of the First World Heritage Youth Forum in Bergen, Norway, in 1995. (In UNESCO World Heritage in Young Hands, 2002)
  Period of significance
  1. The span of time during which significant events and activities occurred at a place. Events and associations with heritage places are finite; most heritage places have a clearly definable period of significance. (Getty Conservation Institute Glossary for Iraq Course 2004)
  Photo report
  1. A report that primarily contains photos of a cultural heritage place, together with a photo-key-plan that shows from where, and in what direction each photo was taken. These reports generally complement the understanding of the information provided on a set of measured drawings. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Photogrammetric survey
  1. Producing heritage records by means of photogrammetry. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Photogrammetry
  1. Photogrammetry encompasses methods of image measurement and interpretation in order to derive the shape and location of an object from one or more photographs of that object. In principle, photogrammetric methods can be applied in any situation where the object to be measured can be photographically recorded. From: Close Range Photogrammetry - Principles, Methods and Applications; T. Luhmann
  2. A survey technique in which a twodimensional or three-dimensional object may be measured
    from photographs taken from two or more slightly different positions. These are called stereographs, and they provide the viewer with two different perspectives of the same object that
    mimic the perspective of human binocular vision. Measurements are extracted from the stereographs, and 3-D information is reconstructed using computer software and hardware. (In “Structural Assessment,” by Gorun Arun in Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Place
  1. Place means site, area, land, landscape, building or other work, group of buildings or other works, and may include components, contents, spaces and views. (Australia Burra Charter).
  2. May be a landscape, seascape, feature, area, site, building or other work, group of buildings, or other works or landscapes, together with associated contents and surrounds. (In: Conservation Management Planning: Putting Theory into Practice. The Case of Joya de Cerén, El Salvator – Getty Conservation Institute 2009).
  Preservation
  1. Preservation means maintaining the fabric of a place in its existing state and retarding deterioration. (Australia Burra Charter)
  2. The protection of cultural property through activities that minimize chemical and physical deterioration and damage and that prevent loss of informational content. The primary goal of preservation is to prolong the existence of cultural property.((In AIC Definitions of conservation terminology - http://aic.stanford.edu/geninfo/defin.html).
  3. All actions taken to retard deterioration of, or to prevent damage to , cultural property. Preservation in volves management of the environment and of the conditions of use, and may
    include treatment in order to maintain a cultural property, as nearly as possible, in a stable physical condition. With respect to material valued exclusively for its information content, for example some archival material, preservation may include reformatting. (In "Code of Ethics" - Canadian Association for Conservation of Cultural Property and the Canadian Association of Professional Conservators, 2000)
  4. A generic term for the broad range of processes associated with the restoration, rehabilitation and adaptive re-use of historic structures. Other activities including the identification, evaluation, interpretation, maintenance and administration of historic resources form an integral part of the movement to retain elements from the past.(In The Heritage Canada Foundation - Preservation Strategy No.3, 1983).
  5. Is defined as the act or process of applying measures to sustain the existing form, integrity, and material of a building or structure, and the existing form and vegetative cover of a site. It may include initial stabilization work, where necessary, as well as ongoing maintenance of the historic building materials. (USA Secretary Of The Interior's Standards For Historic Preservation 1979) and (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  6. The action or process of protecting, maintaining, and/or stabilizing the existing materials, form, and integrity of a historic place or of an individual component, while protecting its heritage value. (In Parks Canada Standards and Guidelines for the Conservation of Historic Places in Canada - http://www.pc.gc.ca/docs/pc/guide/nldclpc-sgchpc/sec1/page1b_e.asp#tphp)
  7. Refers to actions taken to prevent further changes or deterioration in objects, sites, or structures. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  8. This is often used as a synonym of conservation; many people use the word in an all encompassing sense, including also issues related to the broader administrative, economic, legal, political and social context in which conservation takes place (e.g. legal protection, policies, public awareness). (
    In: Conservation Management Planning: Putting Theory into Practice. The Case of Joya de Cerén, El Salvator – Getty Conservation Institute 2009)
  Preserve (verb)
  1. To maintain in sound condition in order to arrest decay or deterioration, or to retain the components of a building that are of historical or architectural value or interest.In practice, preservation may be applied in the heritage context, as well as to groups or types of buildings. The activity itself normally requires more than maintenance and less than restoration. (Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing, Canada, 1982).
  Preventive care
  1. The mitigation of deterioration and damage to cultural property through the formulation and implementation of policies and procedures for the following: appropriate environmental conditions; handling and maintenance procedures for storage, exhibition, packing, transport, and use; integrated pest management; emergency preparedness and response; and reformatting/duplication. ((In AIC Definitions of conservation terminology - http://aic.stanford.edu/geninfo/defin.html) (Also referred to as preventive conservation).
  Preventive conservation
  1. Preventive conservation - all measures and actions aimed at avoiding and minimizing
    future deterioration or loss. They are carried out within the context or on the surroundings
    of an item, but more often a group of items, whatever their age and condition. These
    measures and actions are indirect – they do not interfere with the materials and structures
    of the items. They do not modify their appearance. (In ICOM-CC, 2008)
  2. All actions taken to mitigate deterioration and damage to cultural property. This is achieved through the formulation and implementation of policies and procedures in areas such as lighting, environmental conditions, air quality, integrated pest management; handling, packing and transport, exhibition, storage, maintenance, use, security; fire protection, and emergency preparedness and response. (In "Code of Ethics" - Canadian Association for Conservation of Cultural Property and the Canadian Association of Professional Conservators, 2000)
  Project dossier
  1. A project dossier contains all information that is important / pertinent to a project. In conservation practice, a project dossier would generally contain any or all of the following documents: i.e. 'decision making' correspondence, field notes and sketches, photographs and negatives (with their annotations), drawings and maps (historic or new), and project reports. An 'Integrated Project Dossier' is one of the tools of 'Project Information Container' proposed in this publication. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Project ID sheet
  1. Generic information about a heritage place (such as: asset name, number, address, the name of project manager, email and or web site address. Also could include additional information such as: list of institutions / conservation specialists that have worked on and can provide information about the asset. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Project information container
  1. An information management approach presented in this book. A hypertext database or web page provides the project manager and team members with a framework template (or table of contents) for the production and management of information units produced during the activities of a project. The Project Information Container is composed of two parts: the 'Project ID Sheet' and the 'Integrated Project Dossier'. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Project information specialist
  1. Expert in all aspects of Heritage Information (recording, documentation and information management). A new profession , which developed from the trade and computer skills of heritage recorders. 'Heritage Information Specialists' produce heritage records and provide information management assistance responding to project needs and requirements defined by conservation professionals. They are trained to make sure that Heritage Information is an integral part of the conservation process and that information is correctly recorded, catalogued, stored, and shared. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Protect
  1. To maintain the status and integrity of the original existing features and materials of a historic property. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Protected Landscape / Seascape
  1. protected area managed mainly for landscape/seascape conservation and recreation Area of land, with coast and sea as appropriate, where the interaction of people and nature over time has produced an area of distinct character with significant aesthetic, ecological and/or cultural value, and often with high biological diversity. Safeguarding the integrity of this traditional interaction is vital to the protection, maintenance and evolution of such an area. (In IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas - Protected Areas and World Heritage Programme: Defining Protected Area Management Categories (http://www.unep-wcmc.org/protected_areas/categories/index.html), 1994)
  Protection
  1. Is defined as the act or process of applying measures designed to affect the physical condition of a property by defending or guarding it from deterioration, loss or attack, or to cover or shield the property from danger or injury. In the case of buildings and structures, such treatment is generally of a temporary nature and anticipates future historic preservation treatment; in the case of archaeological sites, the protective measure may be temporary or permanent. (USA Secretary Of The Interior's Standards For Historic Preservation 1979).
  2. “Protection” means the adoption of measures aimed at the preservation, safeguarding and enhancement of the diversity of cultural expressions. “Protect” means to adopt such measures. (in UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions 2005)
  3. For the purposes of the present Convention, the protection of cultural property shall comprise the safeguarding of and respect for such property. (In UNESCO's Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict with Regulations for the Execution of the Convention 1954)
  4. In legal terms, preservation is the action required to provide the conditions for a monument, site or historic area to survive. The term is also related to the physical protection of historic sites to ensure their security against theft or vandalism, as well as environmental attack and visual intrusions. Buffer zones also provide protection to historic areas. Legal protection, which is based on legislation and planning norms, aims to guarantee defense against any harmful treatment, provide guidelines for proper action, and institute corresponding punitive sanctions. Physical protection includes the addition of roofs, shelters, coverings, etc., or even removing an endangered object to safety. (In: Conservation Management Planning: Putting Theory into Practice. The Case of Joya de Cerén, El Salvator - Getty Conservation Institute 2009).
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  Rebuild (verb)
  1. To build again or to make extensive structural repairs on. (Webster's II Dictionary, 1988).
  Reconstitution
  1. Describes the piece-by-piece reassembly of a structure either in situ or on a new site. Reconstitution may be the result of disasters such as wars and earthquakes or it may be caused by land use changes which necessitate the relocation of a building. (In The Heritage Canada Foundation - Preservation Strategy No.3, 1983).
  2. Describes the piece-by-piece rebuilding of a structure's original components either in the original location or a new site. May be required when a structure lacks integrity even though its original components are sound. One of the most common reasons for reconstitution is land use change which requires the relocation of a structure. (In Heritage BC - http://www.heritagebc.ca/resources/guides-tips-1/terms-definitions)
  Reconstruct (verb)
  1. To reproduce, by new construction, the exact form and details of all or part of existing or vanished structures as they were at a specific period in time, either on the original site or at a new site.
    This term may sometimes be used in a heritage context. It may also be used interchangeably with rebuild. The latter term, however, is more accurately applied to a building that has been partially or wholly destroyed or has deteriorated badly. (Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing, Canada, 1982).
  Reconstruction
  1. Reconstruction means returning a place to a known earlier state and is distinguished from restoration by the introduction of new material into the fabric. (Australia Burra Charter).
  2. Involves the re-creation of a non-existent building on its original site. Based upon historical, literary, graphic and pictorial as well as archaeological evidence, a replica of the original is built using both modern and/or traditional methods of construction. (In The Heritage Canada Foundation - Preservation Strategy No.3, 1983).
  3. The re-creation of an object, building or structure that no longer exists, on the basis of archaeological,literary and historical evidence (i.e. old photographs, diaries). Often raises concerns about accuracy as certain elements are often based on conjecture when no evidence can be found. (In Heritage BC - http://www.heritagebc.ca/resources/guides-tips-1/terms-definitions).
  4. Is defined as the act or process of reproducing by new construction the exact form and detail of a vanished building, structure, or object, or a part thereof, as it appeared at a specific period of time. (USA Secretary Of The Interior's Standards For Historic Preservation 1979).
  5. All actions taken to re-create, in whole or in part, a cultural property, based up on historical,
    literary, graphic, pictorial, archaeological and scientific evidence. Reconstruction is aimed at promoting an understanding of a cultural property, and is based on little or no original material but clear evidence of a former state. (In "Code of Ethics" - Canadian Association for Conservation of Cultural Property and the Canadian Association of Professional Conservators, 2000).
  6. The act or process of depicting, by means of new construction, the form, features, and detailing of a non-surviving site, landscape, building, structure, or object for the purpose of replicating its appearance at a specific period of time and in its historic location. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Reconvert (verb)
  1. To cause to undergo conversion to a former state. (Webster's II Dictionary, 1988).
  Record
  1. The product of recording (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Record (verb)
  1. To capture information relevant to understanding the physical configuration, evolution and condition of monuments, groups of buildings or sites, at known points of time, and the basis of decisions made to alter or care for them. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management Guidelines for World Cultural Heritage - Letellier R. 1999).
  Record (detailed)
  1. Detailed recording may take place prior to, during or after a conservation activity so as to record a site's physical configuration, condition and significant features. Detailed recording occurs when a highly significant resource becomes the subject of directed research and analysis, or intervention planning and conceptual design. To ensure cost-effective detailed recording, completeness should be tailored to the immediate needs of a conservation team. Detailed recording may be phased over a number of years depending on planning requirements and related budget. The accuracy of a detailed record can vary between approximately ± 5 mm (for details) and ± 25 mm (for building plans). (In Robin Letellier's course handout, Penn University, 2006)
  Record photographs
  1. Consist in systematically taking photos showing general views of the outside of a building, and details of the inside. For example, walking clockwise around a building, taking photos from all angles, will allow to answer any questions about outside features / details / materials, when looking at the photo report. This systematic approach is also applied inside the structure (showing all rooms / passageways / ceilings / floors / moldings / hardware / etc.), beginning in the basement, then recording all floors, and ending in the attic). The objective is to be able to understand / discuss any room (and its details) from a large number of 'record photographs' accompanied by a 'photo key plan. (By Robin Letellier, Penn University courses handout 2006).
  Record (preliminary)
  1. Preliminary recording will complement the reconnaissance record by providing more complete information pertaining to the most significant elements of a site. The purpose of this record is to produce a record of the resource's major features. Additionally, the preliminary record could include data necessary for preliminary analysis, and define areas for further investigation and future 'detailed recording.' The accuracy of data is approximately ± 10 cm for plans, elevations, and cross sections, and ± 2 cm for structural and other structural details. (In Robin Letellier's course handout, Penn University, 2006)
  Record (reconnaissance)
  1. Usually, the reconnaissance record is an overview photo survey that will allow conservationists to visualize, in their entirety, a site and its related buildings and features in sufficient detail to understand the site's overall general characteristics. It should permit rapid identification of significant features and problem areas. The quantity of photos taken will vary with the size of the site and related structures and features, and the client's requirements. For a building, a reconnaissance record would normally include elevations together with significant details. More complex sites such as cultural landscapes or archaeological excavations will require general views from all compass points and at various height elevations (that is heights of land), supplemented, as needs dictate, by representative details.(In Robin Letellier's course handout, Penn University, 2006)
  Recording
  1. Term used in a broad sense, meaning the acquisition of new information deriving from all activities on a heritage asset, including heritage recording, research and investigation, conservation, use and management, maintenance and monitoring (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Rectified photography
  1. Rectified photography may be defined as the process of obtaining "a photograph where the tilt and scale of the image have been adjusted to fit control values, typically for a single plane." From: English Heritage - Documentation for Conservation: A Manual for Teaching Metric Survey Skills
  2. A technique based on the concept of bringing the surface of an object-a building facade, for example-and the plane of the image (photograph) into a parallel condition. Rectification removes perspective angle and camera lens distortion and creates a measurable image that is geometrically in proportion with the surface of the facade. It is quick and inexpensive, requires minimal training, and demands no high-tech equipment. Image rectification can be carried out with or without measurement control points on the object, with slight variations in accuracy and reliability. Control points can be measured using a tape measure or, preferably, survey instruments (total station). (In “Recording Streetscapes,” by Salim Elwazani and José Luis Lerma in Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Recycle (verb)
  1. To re-use or adapt existing buildings, materials or components for a similar or new purpose.

    Since this activity may include many other activities such as renovation, retrofitting, rehabilitation, reconstruction and restoration, it can therefore be called an umbrella term. In some cases it could also be considered as a heritage activity. (Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing, Canada, 1982).
  Redevelop (verb)
  1. To replan, redesign, clear, reconstruct or renovate urban areas. (Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing, Canada, 1982)
  2. To provide for such residential, commercial and industrial buildings as are appropriate or necessary. (National Research Council of Canada, 1982).
  Refurbish (verb)
  1. To upgrade a building, or parts of it, iwith newer finish materials, furniture, fixtures or equipment. (Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing, Canada, 1982).
  Rehabilitate (verb)
  1. To return an existing building to its previous good state. (James G. Ripley, Editorial in Canadian Building, April 1978).
  2. To bring a building up to minimum municipal property standards without changing its use. (Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing, Canada, 1982).
  Rehabilitation
  1. Rehabilitation is usually carried out in order to extend a building's life and/or its economic viability. It may involve more adaptation than conservation, but will still preserve most of the building's original features. It may involve upgrading, some modification, remodeling, rebuilding or retrofitting, and some repairs. It may be done to the exterior as well as the interior of the building. It may be referred to as major or minor. According to the usage of the word over the past few years, rehabilitation projects fall somewhat short of renovation projects in extent and/or cost of work. (National Research Council of Canada, 1982).
  2. Is often used interchangeably with renovation to describe the modification of an existing building. This process extends the structure's useful life through alterations and repairs while preserving its important architectural, historical and cultural attributes. (Heritage Canada Foundation 1983)
  3. The process of modifying an historic building to extend its useful life through alterations and repairs, while preserving the important architectural, cultural and historical features. (In Heritage BC - http://www.heritagebc.ca/resources/guides-tips-1/terms-definitions).
  4. Is defined as the act or process of returning a property to a state of utility through repair or alteration which makes possible an efficient contemporary use while preserving those portions or features of the property which are significant to its historical, architectural, and cultural values. (USA Secretary Of The Interior's Standards For Historic Preservation 1979).
  5. The action or process of making possible a continuing or compatible contemporary use of a historic place or an individual component, through repair, alterations, and/or additions, while protecting its heritage value.(In Parks Canada Standards and Guidelines for the Conservation of Historic Places in Canada - http://www.pc.gc.ca/docs/pc/guide/nldclpc-sgchpc/sec1/page1b_e.asp#tphp)
  6. Refers to the function of restoring people to physical or mental health or good repute. Refers also to the activity of returning to good condition deteriorated objects, structures, neighborhoods, or public facilities; may involve repair, renovation, conversion, expansion, remodeling, or reconstruction. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)

  Reformatting
  1. All actions taken to transfer onto another medium, the information contained within a cultural property valued exclusively for its information content (for example, archival electronic media). (In "Code of Ethics" - Canadian Association for Conservation of Cultural Property and the Canadian Association of Professional Conservators, 2000)
  Reinstatement or reintroduction
  1. Means to introduce to a place one or more species or elements of habitat or geodiversity that are known to have existed there naturally at a previous time, but that can no longer be found at that place. (In Australia Centennial Parklands Conservation Management Plan 2003)
  Related object
  1. Related object means an object that contributes to the cultural significance of a place but is not at the place. (Australia Burra Charter).
  Related place
  1. Related place means a place that contributes to the cultural significance of another place. (Australia Burra Charter).
  Relational database
  1. It is a database that maintains a set of separate, related files (tables), but combines data elements from the files for queries and reports when required. From PC Magazine (http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia_term/0,2542,t=relational+database&i=50369,00.asp)
    Relational databases require a high level of standardization of terms and categories.

  Remedial conservation
  1. All actions directly applied to an item or a group of items aimed at arresting current damaging processes or reinforcing their structure. These actions are only carried out when the items are in such a fragile condition or deteriorating at such a rate, that they could be lost in a relatively short time. These actions sometimes modify the appearance of the items. (In ICOM-CC, 2008)
  Remodel (verb)
  1. To replace or upgrade the interior components of a building or of a room in a building (perhaps more extensively than for refurbishing; in some contexts, this term may be considered equivalent to home improvement). (Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing, Canada, 1982).
  Remodeling
  1. A process which involves the upgrading or replacing of interior components frequently in rooms such as a kitchen or bathroom. (In The Heritage Canada Foundation - Preservation Strategy No.3, 1983).
  2. A process which involves upgrading or replacing interior parts and features. This process tends to be done more for aesthetic reasons rather than functional ones. Remodeling may involve the removal and refinishing of interiors to make them indistinguishable from new structures, as well as applying architectural details from different, usually earlier periods. Often such buildings end up with a hybrid appearance, neither looking old or new. This process is often discouraged by conservationists. (In Heritage BC - http://www.heritagebc.ca/resources/guides-tips-1/terms-definitions)
  3. Changes undertaken with the intention of altering the style or decorative appearance of rooms, spaces, or buildings or other structures, without regard necessarily to historically accurate forms or periods. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  Remote sensing
  1. A method that broadly refers to capturing imagery from a distance, usually from satellites, but can also refer to aerial photography. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Renew (verb)
  1. To replan or redevelop (urban) areas when the buildings themselves may be subject to renovation, rehabilitation, rebuilding etc. (Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing, Canada, 1982).
  Renewal
  1. Any action which renews, or revitalizes, the cultural significance of the place. Sometimes these actions may affect the fabric or the physical aspects of the place. Renewal may simply be 'continued use', which may or may not result in 'protective care'. Renewal or revitalization can occur as a result of activities which do not alter the fabric; for example, by the telling of new stories, or by the use of the site for new ceremonies. (In: Conservation Management Planning: Putting Theory into Practice. The Case of Joya de Cerén, El Salvator - Getty Conservation Institute 2009).
  Renovate (verb)
  1. To replan and improve existing buildings, often beyond minimum municipal property standards and sometimes with changes in their capacity and/or occupancy and use. (Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing, Canada, 1982).
  Renovation
  1. In practice, renovation may involve rehabilitation, rebuilding and several other activities. Also, renovations are usually more extensive and costly than these other activities for a given building. (National Research Council of Canada, 1982).
  2. Is a generic term used to describe various levels of intervention including remodeling, recycling and rehabilitation. It refers to the improvement of existing buildings or neighborhoods. (In The Heritage Canada Foundation - Preservation Strategy No.3, 1983).
  3. A generic term to describe the process of modifying an historic structure in order to extend its useful life. It is also used to describe the improvements made to existing buildings or neighbourhoods. Other terms which also refer to renovation are: remodeling, recycling and rehabilitation. (In Heritage BC - http://www.heritagebc.ca/resources/guides-tips-1/terms-definitions)
  4. Refers to the process of making changes to objects, especially buildings or other structures, with the intention of improving their physical condition. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  5. Modernization of an old or historic building that may produce inappropriate alteration or eliminate important features and details. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Remote sensing
  1. Remote sensing - the science, technology, and art of obtaining information about objects from a distance. Remotely sensed data takes many forms, including aerial photography, digital satellite imagery, and radar. From: Remote Sensing for GIS Managers - Stan Aronoff
  Repair (verb)
  1. To replace or correct broken, damaged or faulty components or elements of a building, either inside or outside, or to make minor alterations or renovations to it in order to maintain its operating efficiency. (Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing, Canada, 1982).
  2. A generic term that refers to the various activities which will strengthen existing building materials and systems that are salvageable. (In Heritage BC - http://www.heritagebc.ca/resources/guides-tips-1/terms-definitions)
  Replace, replacement
  1. The removal of existing materials which can no longer perform their proper function and their replacement with as exact a substitute as possible (i.e. the replacement of old shingles with new that match the existing shingles in material, pattern and exposure). This may be impossible when materials are unavailable or costs are to high. (In Heritage BC - http://www.heritagebc.ca/resources/guides-tips-1/terms-definitions)
  2. A level of intervention for historic properties that is used when character-defining features are extensively deteriorated or missing, which results in the replacement of the feature(s) based on documentary or physical evidence and the replacement is compatible with the historic property. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Replace in-kind
  1. Replacement of a historic feature of a resource with a new feature that matches the original in material, appearance, size, shape, design, scale, color and craftsmanship. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Replication
  1. The process whereby an exact copy of an object, building or structure is produced. (In Heritage BC - http://www.heritagebc.ca/resources/guides-tips-1/terms-definitions)
  Repointing
  1. Removing old mortar in masonry joints and relplacing it, preferably with motar and technique which match the characteristics of the original. (In Heritage BC - http://www.heritagebc.ca/resources/guides-tips-1/terms-definitions)
  Research and investigation
  1. A general term used to describe a variety of activities aiming at the acquisition of information of all kinds pertinent to increasing knowledge of a cultural heritage place. While research is more relating to off-site surveys (e.g. archival research), investigation relates to the direct acquisition of information from the heritage place as a primary source. Recording is an essential component of research and investigation at each step and at each level of the conservation process. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Research and investigation records
  1. Are produced / compiled by conservation professionals, at different stages of the conservation process. Eventually, the correlation and interpretation of these information units will form the scientific record of a conservation project or a cultural heritage place. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Restoration
  1. Article 9.

    The process of restoration is a highly specialized operation. Its aim is to preserve and reveal the aesthetic and historic value of the monument and is based on respect for original material and authentic documents. It must stop at the point where conjecture begins, and in this case moreover any extra work which is indispensable must be distinct from the architectural composition and must bear a contemporary stamp. The restoration in any case must be preceded and followed by an archaeological and historical study of the monument.
    (In International Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites - The Venice Charter- 1964)

  2. Restoration means returning the existing fabric of a place to a known earlier state by removing accretions or by reassembling existing components without the introduction of new material. (Australia Burra Charter).

  3. Means returning the existing fabric, habitat or place to a known earlier state or to an approximation of the natural condition by repairing degradation, removing accretions or introduced species or by reassembling existing components without the introduction of new material. (In Australia Centennial Parklands Conservation Management Plan 2003)

  4. Treatment procedures intended to return cultural property to a known or assumed state, often through the addition of nonoriginal material. ((In AIC Definitions of conservation terminology - http://aic.stanford.edu/geninfo/defin.html).

  5. Restoration activities can be as extensive and expensive as those associated with renovation (or rehabilitation); however, unlike renovation activities, they are normally done for heritage or historical purposes and are based on documentary evidence of the earlier state of the building. (National Research Council of Canada, 1982).

  6. The process of returning a building or site to a particular period in time. The degree of intervention and the removal or replacement of parts may be determined by an historical event associated with the building or by aesthetic integrity. (In The Heritage Canada Foundation - Preservation Strategy No.3, 1983).

  7. The practice of returning an object or building to its appearance at a particular time period. Restoration may include the removal of additions and alterations made after the particular time period, and reconstruction of missing earlier features.(In Heritage BC - http://www.heritagebc.ca/resources/guides-tips-1/terms-definitions)
  8. The action or process of accurately revealing, recovering or representing the state of a historic place or of an individual component, as it appeared at a particular period in its history, while protecting its heritage value. (In Parks Canada Standards and Guidelines for the Conservation of Historic Places in Canada - http://www.pc.gc.ca/docs/pc/guide/nldclpc-sgchpc/sec1/page1b_e.asp#tphp)
  9. Is defined as the act or process of accurately recovering the form and details of a property and its setting as it appeared at a particular period of time by means of the removal of later work or by the replacement of missing earlier work. (USA Secretary Of The Interior's Standards For Historic Preservation 1979).
  10. All actions directly applied to a single and stable item aimed at facilitating its appreciation, understanding and use. These actions are only carried out when the item has lost part of its significance or function through past alteration or deterioration. They are based on respect for the original material. Most often such actions modify the appearance of the item. (In ICOM-CC, 2008)
  11. Refers to the process of making changes to an object or structure so that it will closely approximate its state at a specific time in its history. (In Getty Research - Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online)
  12. All actions taken to modify the existing materials and structure of a cultural property to represent a known earlier state. The aim of restoration is to reveal the culturally significant qualities of a cultural property. Restoration is based on respect for the remaining original material and clear evidence of the earlier state. (In "Code of Ethics" - Canadian Association for Conservation of Cultural Property and the Canadian Association of Professional Conservators, 2000)
  13. The act or the process of accurately depicting the form, features, and character of a property as it appeared at a particular period of time by means of the removal of features from other periods in its history and the reconstruction of missing features from the restoration period. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Restoration period
  1. The particular period in which it has been decided to return a historic building to its appearance at that time following the treatment standards for restoration. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Restore (verb)
  1. To put back the form and detail of a building of historical or architectural value or interest into the appropriate state and period of time. (Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing, Canada, 1982).
  Retain
  1. To keep intact the original features and materials of a historic property. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Retrofit (verb)
  1. To update the components of an existing building to meet code (or other regulatory) requirements. (Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing, Canada, 1982)
  2. To bring the building up to higher standards, with respect particularly to energy efficiency, security, fire protection and modern amenities. The energy conservation aspect of a retrofit may sometimes be referred to as a thermofit. (James G. Ripley, Editorial in Canadian Building, April 1978)
  Retrofitting
  1. Involves the upgrading of an existing building to meet code requirements (i.e. fire or emergency exits). This process often includes the installation of new insulation as a means of energy conservation. (In The Heritage Canada Foundation - Preservation Strategy No.3, 1983).
  2. The upgrading of an existing building to meet code requirements (i.e. for fire or emergency exits) and increase comfort and safety, e.g., installation of new insulation, storm windows, smoke detectors, fire sprinklers, new heating and new electrical systems. (In Heritage BC - http://www.heritagebc.ca/resources/guides-tips-1/terms-definitions)
  Reuse (verb)
  1. To use again. (Webster's II Dictionary, 1988).
  2. The use of a material more than once in its same form for the same purpose. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Revitalize (verb)
  1. To give new life or vigor to. (Webster's II Dictionary, 1988).
  Revitalization
  1. Describes the process of economic, social, and cultural redevelopment of an area or street. Often the buildings in these areas are of heritage merit despite their state of nelect prior to revitalization. (In The Heritage Canada Foundation - Preservation Strategy No.3, 1983).
  2. A process of economic, social and cultural redevelopment of a civic area or neighbourhood. Heritage area revitalization concentrates on historic buildings and other heritage resources to achieve economic, social and cultural objectives. (In Heritage BC - http://www.heritagebc.ca/resources/guides-tips-1/terms-definitions)
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  Safeguarding of the beauty and character of landscapes and sites
  1. 1. For the purpose of this recommendation, the safeguarding of the beauty and character of landscapes and sites is taken to mean the preservation and, where possible, the restoration of the aspect of natural, rural and urban landscapes and sites, whether natural or man-made, which have a cultural or aesthetic interest or form typical natural surroundings.
    (In UNESCO's Recommendation concerning the Safeguarding of Beauty and Character of Landscapes and Sites 11 December 1962)
  Safeguarding of cultural property
  1. The High Contracting Parties undertake to prepare in time of peace for the safeguarding of cultural property situated within their own territory against the foreseeable effects of an armed conflict, by taking such measures as they consider appropriate. (In UNESCO's Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict with Regulations for the Execution of the Convention 1954)
  Safeguarding intangible cultural heritage
  1. “Safeguarding” means measures aimed at ensuring the viability of the intangible cultural heritage, including the identification, documentation, research, preservation, protection, promotion, enhancement, transmission, particularly through formal and non-formal education, as well as the revitalization of the various aspects of such heritage. (In Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage 2003)
  Scale
  1. A ratio of the size of a drawing or photograph recorded image to the actual physical size of the subject. A large scale means higher accuracy and finer detail. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Scientific record
  1. The output of research, investigation and conservation activities consisting of research/investigation records provided by different conservation professionals involved. After going through a process of interpretation and selection, the correlation of all relevant research/investigation records provides a complete picture of the current scientific knowledge about a cultural heritage place. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Setting
  1. Setting means the area around a place, which may include the visual catchment. (Australia Burra Charter).
  2. The physical environment of a historic property. (Getty Conservation Institute Glossary for Iraq Course 2004).
  3. Setting means the natural and/or man-made contexts (in which the historic urban heritage is located) that influence the static or dynamic way these areas are perceived, experienced and/or enjoyed, or which are directly linked to them socially, economically or culturally. (The Valletta Principles for the Safeguarding and Management of Historic Cities, Towns and Urban Areas. Adopted by the 17th ICOMOS General Assembly on 28 November 2011).

  Significance
  1. The meaning or value ascribed to a cultural resource based on the NRHP criteria for evaluation. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Sites
  1. Sites: works of man or the combined works of nature and man, and areas including archaeological sites which are of outstanding universal value from the historical, aesthetic, ethnological or anthropological point of view. (UNESCO World Heritage Convention Art.1).
  Sketch diagram
  1. "Sketch diagram is a diagnostic drawing that shows the key relationships between components [...] and the explanation of that which is not apparent from photography. In short, the sketch diagram is the 'x-ray' vision of the documentation process." From: English Heritage - Documentation for Conservation: A Manual for Teaching Metric Survey Skills
  2. Investigative and interpretive drawing tools that combine various methods of recording to understand a site, building, or object. A sketch diagram represents the relationships between elements in order to understand how they interact. It also facilitates communication with others about these key elements. (In “Rapid Assessment,” by Anthony Crosby in Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Social value
  1. Range of qualities for a place such as spiritual, traditional, economic, political, or national qualities which are valued by the majority or minority group of that place. Social values include contemporary cultural values. (In: Conservation Management Planning: Putting Theory into Practice. The Case of Joya de Cerén, El Salvator - Getty Conservation Institute 2009).
  Spactial coordinate systems
  1. Any system that allows you to use numeric values to identify the location of a point on the surface of the Earth is termed a spatial coordinate system. More generally, coordinate systems that allow you to locate a point anywhere in space (e.g., locating a spacecraft somewhere between the Earth and the moon) are also termed spatial coordinate systems. From: Colorado State University
  Stabilization
  1. Treatment procedures intended to maintain the integrity of cultural property and to minimize deterioration. ((In AIC Definitions of conservation terminology - http://aic.stanford.edu/geninfo/defin.html)
  2. Is a process of intervention which may be used as an interim measure on a severely deteriorated building or it may involve the long-term consolidation of a structure. (In The Heritage Canada Foundation - Preservation Strategy No.3, 1983).
  3. The introduction of new materials to supplement existing ones which no longer perform their proper function. Stabilization is designed to be reversible and includes:

    * Interim Stabilization: Anticipates a greater level of intervention in the future. Treatments should be temporary and easy to reverse, so not to prejudice future decisions.
    * Long Term Stabilization: Done to permit use of the building in its deteriorated state when a greater level of intervention is not in the building's future. In addition to protecting the structure over a long period of time (and ensuring the safety of occupants), the treatments should be reversible. (In Heritage BC - http://www.heritagebc.ca/resources/guides-tips-1/terms-definitions)

  4. Is defined as the act or process of applying measures designed to re-establish a weather resistant enclosure and the structural stability of an unsafe or deteriorated property while maintaining the essential form as it exists at present. (USA Secretary Of The Interior's Standards For Historic Preservation 1979).
  5. Maintaining the fabric of a place in its existing state and retarding or slowing deterioration. (In: Conservation Management Planning: Putting Theory into Practice. The Case of Joya de Cerén, El Salvator - Getty Conservation Institute 2009).


  Stabilize (verb)
  1. To apply measures designed to re-establish a weather-resistant enclosure and to stabilize structurally an unsafe or deteriorated property while maintaining essentially its present form. (National Register of Historic Places, Us Department of the Interior, 1982).
  Standards
  1. Norms for the respectful conservation of historic places. (In Parks Canada's Standards and Guidelines for the Conservation of Historic Places in Canada - http://www.pc.gc.ca/docs/pc/guide/nldclpc-sgchpc/sec1/page1b_e.asp#tphp)
  State historic preservation office/officer
  1. USA State agency responsible with administering the cultural resources program within in their state or territory, director of the program is referred to as the State Historic Preservation Officer and he/she is appointed by the governor of each state and territory. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Statement of contribution
  1. A Statement of Contribution that defines the heritage value of the contributing property in relationship to that of the larger historic place, and the contributing property's own character defining elements. (In Parks Canada Historic Places Initiative 2007)
  Statement of significance
  1. A statement of the values of an historic place based on the reasons for formal recognition. It describes the historic place and defines its heritage value and character defining elements. (In Parks Canada Historic Places Initiative 2007)
 

State vessels and aircrafts

  1. “State vessels and aircraft” means warships, and other vessels or aircraft that were owned or operated by a State and used, at the time of sinking, only for government non-commercial purposes, that are identified as such and that meet the definition of underwater cultural heritage. (In UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage 2001)
  Streetscape
  1. The distinguishing character of a particular street which is created by its width, degree of curvature, paving materials, design of street furniture, forms of surrounding buildings, and the presence of vegetation along the curb or sidewalk. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Substitute materials
  1. Those products used to imitate historic materials, which should match the appearance and physical properties of historic materials. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Sustainability
  1. Forms of progress that meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. (World Commission on Environment and Development
  Sustainable development
  1. Use of an area within its capacity to sustain its cultural or natural significance, and ensure that the benefits of the use to present generations do not diminish the potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future generations. (In: Conservation Management Planning: Putting Theory into Practice. The Case of Joya de Cerén, El Salvator - Getty Conservation Institute 2009).
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  Tentative list
  1. Each country that is a State Party to the UNESCO World Heritage Convention is requested to
    draw up a tentative list, naming cultural and natural sites it intends to nominate for inclusion in the World Heritage List in the next five to ten years. (In UNESCO World Heritage in Young Hands, 2002)
  Technical analysis
  1. Activity undertaken by heritage recorders to provide conservation professionals with accurate and objective descriptions of the design, construction, materials, and condition of cultural heritage places. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Thermofit (verb)
  1. To install energy-saving materials and devices in existing buildings in order to minimize heat losses and reduce energy consumption (roughly equivalent to "retrofitting for energy conservation". (Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing, Canada, 1982).
  Total station
  1. "A total station is an apparatus that combines a theodolite with electronic tachometers for vertical and horizontal angular measurement and an Electromagnetic Distance Measurement (EDM) for distance measurement." From: http://www.es.lancs.ac.uk/rssea/map.htm

    "The Total station is designed for measuring of slant distances, horizontal and vertical angles and elevations in topographic and geodetic works, tachometric surveys, as well as for solution of application geodetic tasks. The measurement results can be recorded into the internal memory and transferred to a personal computer interface." From: http://totalstation.org/

    "An optical surveyor's instrument that combines a transit and an electronic distance measuring device. A total station calculates angles and distances for surveyed objects. This information can be used to create topographic maps." From: http://www.archaeological.org/webinfo.php?page=10299

  2. A standard survey device that consists of a powerful telescope mounted on a base that rotates both horizontally and vertically. An operator can locate points by measuring distances through an electronic distance measurement (EDM) device as well as horizontal and vertical angles. Trigonometric calculations are performed by the onboard computer, combining the horizontal and
    vertical angles with the distance measurement to determine an XYZ coordinate. A series of points can be combined to form lines and planes, thus representing the object being recorded. (In “Defining Cultural Landscapes,” by Geofree Chikwanda in Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Traditional knowledge
  1. Knowledge that drives from, or is rooted in the traditional way of life of Aboriginal people. Traditional Knowledge is the accumulated knowledge and understanding of the human place in relation to the universe. This encompasses spiritual relationships, relationships with the natural environment and the use of natural resources, relationships between people, and is reflected in language, social organizations, values, institutions, and laws. (Government of Northwest Territories - http://www.pc.gc.ca/docs/r/pca-acl/index_e.asp)
  Transparencies
  1. The use of transparencies is a simple method of manually recording conditions onto a series of transparent plastic sheets over a printed base map. Conditions are recorded to scale and then scanned to be digitally included back into the base map. From: Rand Eppich, Getty Conservation Institute.
  Treatment
  1. The deliberate alteration of the chemical and/or physical aspects of cultural property, aimed primarily at prolonging its existence. Treatment may consist of stabilization and/or restoration. ((In AIC Definitions of conservation terminology - http://aic.stanford.edu/geninfo/defin.html).
  2. All direct interventions carried out on the cultural property with the aim of retarding further deterioration or aiding in the interpretation of the cultural property. A treatment may range from minimal stabilization to extensive restoration or reconstruction. (In "Code of Ethics" - Canadian Association for Conservation of Cultural Property and the Canadian Association of Professional Conservators, 2000)
  3. Work carried out to achieve a particular historic preservation goal. Four types of treatment: Preservation, Restoration, Reconstruction and Rehabilitation. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
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  Undertaking
  1. A project, activity, or program funded in whole or in part under the
    direct or indirect jurisdiction of a Federal agency, including:
    (A) those carried out by or on behalf of the agency;
    (B) those carried out with Federal financial assistance;
    (C) those requiring a Federal permit license, or approval; and
    (D) those subject to State or local regulation administered pursuant to a delegation or
    approval by a Federal agency.
    (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
  Underwater cultural heritage
  1. (a) “Underwater cultural heritage” means all traces of human existence having a cultural, historical or archaeological character which have been partially or totally under water, periodically or continuously, for at least 100 years such as:

    (i) sites, structures, buildings, artefacts and human remains, together with their archaeological and natural context;

    (ii) vessels, aircraft, other vehicles or any part thereof, their cargo or other contents, together with their archaeological and natural
    context; and

    (iii) objects of prehistoric character.

    (b) Pipelines and cables placed on the seabed shall not be considered as underwater cultural heritage.

    (c) Installations other than pipelines and cables, placed on the seabed and still in use, shall not be considered as underwater cultural heritage.
    (In UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage 2001)

  UNESCO
  1. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization)
    is a specialized agency of the United Nations with 186 Member States in 1998 . UNESCO's objective is to construct the defences of peace in the minds of men and women through international
    intellectual co-operation. (In UNESCO World Heritage in Young Hands, 2002)
  UNESCO World Heritage Centre
  1. UNESCO World Heritage Centre is responsible for implementing the decisions of the World Heritage Committee. (In UNESCO World Heritage in Young Hands, 2002)
  UNESCO Young People's World Heritage Education Project
  1. UNESCO Young People's World Heritage Education Project is an interregional project jointly co-ordinated by the UNESCO World Heritage Centre and Education Sector ASP Co-ordination Unit with the primary aim of introducing World Heritage education into school curricula in all regions of the world to ensure greater understanding of the values of World Heritage sites and their conservation. (In UNESCO World Heritage in Young Hands, 2002)
  Uniform resource locator (URL)
  1. (Uniform Resource Locator) is the address that defines the route to a file on an Internet server (Web server, FTP server, mail server, etc.). URLs are typed into a Web browser to access Web pages and files, and URLs are embedded within the pages themselves as hypertext links. The URL contains the protocol prefix, port number, domain name, subdirectory names and file name. From: PC Magazine (http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia_term/0,2542,t=URL&i=53516,00.asp)
  2. The address of a document or Web site on the Internet. A URL contains the protocol, domain name, subdirectory, and file names. (Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  United Nations (UN)
  1. United Nations is an international organization comprising 186 (in 1998) sovereign states. It was founded after the Second World War to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations and promote social progress, better living standards and human rights. (In UNESCO World Heritage in Young Hands, 2002)
  Upgrade (verb)
  1. To enhance in quality and/or value (as for improve above), but also including remodeling, revitalization and perhaps other terms. (National Research Council of Canada, 1982).
  Urban studies
  1. "Urban Studies is the broad multi-disciplinary examination of the environmental, political, economic, socio-cultural, and aesthetic conditions affecting cities, urban life and culture." From: University of Virginia http://www.arch.virginia.edu/undergraduate/minors/urbanstudies/
  Use
  1. Use means the functions of a place, as well as the activities and practices that may occur at the place. (Australia Burra Charter)
  UTM
  1. (Universal Transverse Mercator) is a spatial coordinate system that has become a favorite among GIS users. Its popularity can be attributed to its nearly worldwide coverage (it excludes only small regions around the poles) and its ease of use. In its final form, the UTM system uses 60 zones, each 6 degrees of longitude wide... The zones are numbered, starting with 1 which runs from the 180° to the 174°W line of longitude, with numbers increasing as you move west. Collectively, these zones cover almost the entire planet, omitting only the Arctic Ocean in the north and central Antarctica in the South. From: Colorado State University (http://www.warnercnr.colostate.edu/class_info/nr502/lg3/datums_coordinates/utm.html)
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  Value
  1. The positive characteristics attributed to heritage places and objects by legislation, governing authorities, and/or other stakeholders. These characteristics are what make a site significant, and they are often the reason why society and authorities are interested in a specific cultural site or object. In general, groups within society expect benefits from the value they attribute to the resource. (Getty Conservation Institute Glossary for Iraq Course 2004).
  Values-based management
  1. The coordinated and structured operation of a heritage site with the primary purpose of protecting its heritage significance as defined by designation criteria, government authorities or owners, experts of various kinds, and other citizens with legitimate interests in that place. (R. Mason, 2008, Cultural Landscapes: Balancing Nature and Heritage in Preservation Practice; p. 184)
  Video
  1. " A series of framed images put together, one after another, to simulate motion and interactivity. A video can be transmitted by number of frames per second and/or the amount of time between switching frames." From: www.c-latitude.com/glossary.asp
  Video technology
  1. An electronic tool used to capture and process a large number of images and sounds in sequence,
    making it the ideal tool for recording motion and detailed processes. Video is also referred to as the technology used to edit and transmit images and sound. (In “Traditional Techniques,” by Caterina Borelli in Recording, Documentation and Information Management for Historic Places - Guiding Principles; Getty Conservation Institute, 2008).
  Viewshed
  1. The natural or built environment that is visible from one or more viewing points. (Design Guidelines for Department of Defense Historic Buildings and Districts; US Department of Defense, 2008)
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  Wahi tapu
  1. A place sacred to Maori in the traditional, spiritual, religious, ritual, or mythological sense. (New Zealand Historic Places Act 1993).
  World Heritage
  1. Cultural and natural heritage of 'outstanding universal value' inscribed on UNESCO's World Heritage List. (In UNESCO World Heritage in Young Hands, 2002)
  World Heritage Bureau
  1. Seven members of the World Heritage Committee make up the Bureau which meets twice a year to prepare the work of the Committee. (In UNESCO World Heritage in Young Hands, 2002)
  World Heritage Committee
  1. The 21-member intergovernmental World Heritage Committee is responsible for the implementation of the World Heritage Convention. (In UNESCO World Heritage in Young Hands, 2002)
  World Heritage Convention
  1. The Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage was adopted by the sixteenth session of the UNESCO General Conference. The aim of the Convention is to protect, conserve, preserve and transmit cultural and natural heritage of 'outstanding universal value' to future generations. (In UNESCO World Heritage in Young Hands, 2002)
  World Heritage Fund
  1. The World Heritage Fund is made up of voluntary and compulsory contributions and is used for
    the conservation of World Heritage sites. (In UNESCO World Heritage in Young Hands, 2002)
  World Heritage in Danger
  1. The List of World Heritage in Danger includes those World Heritage sites which the World Heritage Committee has decided are so seriously threatened that they require the collective efforts of the international conservation community to conserve them. (In UNESCO World Heritage in Young Hands, 2002)
  World Heritage List
  1. The World Heritage List is the list of cultural, natural and mixed cultural and natural sites
    (including cultural landscapes) considered to be of 'outstanding universal value'. (In UNESCO World Heritage in Young Hands, 2002)
  World Heritage Youth Fora
  1. The objectives of a Youth Forum are to promote intercultural understanding and exchange among young people, to promote an awareness of the importance of the World Heritage Convention and to involve young people in World Heritage conservation. (In UNESCO World Heritage in Young Hands, 2002)
  Workmanship
  1. The physical evidence of the crafts of a particular culture or people during a given period in history or prehistory. It represents evidence of artisans' labor and skill in constructing or altering a building, structue, object, or site. (Getty Conservation Institute Glossary for Iraq Course 2004).
     
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